Toxicological disorders

Chapter 13 Toxicological disorders





Plant toxicoses



Bracken (bracken fern)




Clinical features


bracken toxicosis is widespread in several continents. Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) contains ptaquilosides and other compounds which act as a cumulative poison in two syndromes. Firstly, after ingesting large quantities for a few weeks, cattle may show an acute syndrome resulting from aplastic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Sudden death is occasionally seen. In 13.1 the vulva of the crossbred Angus cow is pale from severe anemia. The pinpoint hemorrhages result from thrombocytopenia. Hemorrhages elsewhere can cause epistaxis, hyphema (13.2) (bleeding into the anterior chamber), or hematuria from bladder mucosal hemorrhage (13.3).





Secondly, long-term ingestion of considerable quantities of bracken for several months can lead to a chronic syndrome of enzootic hematuria. The ptaquilosides are carcinogens and cause bladder neoplasia, resulting in enzootic hematuria and malignancies such as hemangiosarcoma (13.4). Numerous discrete masses, seen protruding from the mucosal surface, bleed readily as the bladder distends and contracts. Some mucosal areas (top right, lower left) appear normal. The hemangiomata can develop into ulcerating tumors of various types. Alimentary tract neoplasms include squamous cell carcinomas and papillomas affecting the pharynx and esophagus, respectively. 13.5 shows pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (A) and esophageal papillomas (B) identified in Brazil. Bovine papillomavirus (types 2 and 4) may also be involved in upper alimentary neoplasms.





Differential diagnosis


acute syndrome: anthrax (12.63), septicemic pasteurellosis (5.10), PPH syndrome (9.39), mycotoxicosis (p. 253); chronic cases: pyelonephritis (10.1, 10.2), cystitis, babesiosis (12.41).







Ragwort (seneciosis)





Differential diagnosis


mycotoxicosis (p. 253), lead poisoning (13.29), and other causes of hepatic disease and encephalopathy.




Rape and kale





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Jul 8, 2016 | Posted by in SUGERY, ORTHOPEDICS & ANESTHESIA | Comments Off on Toxicological disorders
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