The Complete Blood Count, Bone Marrow Examination, and Blood Banking: General Comments and Selected Techniques

2 The Complete Blood Count, Bone Marrow Examination, and Blood Banking

General Comments and Selected Techniques

Complete Blood Count

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common name for a hematologic profile of tests used to describe the quantity and morphology of the cellular elements in blood and a few substances in plasma. The CBC is a cost-effective profile that detects many abnormalities and disease conditions. Bone marrow examination is used in selected patients to answer questions that the CBC cannot.

This chapter discusses how conclusions are derived from information in the CBC and bone marrow examination, in addition to describing selected hematologic techniques. Explanations about interpretation are brief, because detailed discussions about the use of diagnostic tests for erythrocytes (i.e., red blood cells [RBCs]), leukocytes (i.e., white blood cells [WBCs]), and platelets are presented in Chapters 3, 4, and 5, respectively, and in other references.16 Technical comments emphasize the basic tests used in small clinics, but they may include more advanced techniques when they clearly illustrate a basic hematologic principle.

CBC results should be evaluated systematically. The first step involves identifying which test results are abnormal. Appropriate scientific terms should be used to describe the abnormalities (Box 2-1). Adjectives such as “mild, moderate, or marked” are applied to reflect the magnitude of the change, which aids in interpretation. Although these adjectives are subjectively based on clinical experience, some published guidelines are available. Greater deviations from reference values allow more confidence that the change is truly a disease change and serious than do mild deviations in results.

Box 2-1 Definition of Selected Hematologic Changes

Anemia Decreased red blood cell (RBC) mass, clinically noted by decreased packed cell volume (PCV)
Polycythemia Increased RBC mass in body (increased PCV)
Polychromasia Increased number of polychromatophils
Poikilocytosis Increased variation in RBC shapes
Microcytic Increased number of small RBCs
Macrocytic Increased number of large RBCs
Normocytic RBCs are of normal size
Hypochromic RBCs have lower hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration (lower mean corpuscular Hgb concentration [MCHC])
Normochromic RBCs have normal MCHC
Spherocytosis Increased number of spherical (i.e., small and dense-appearing) RBCs
Echinocytosis Increased number of RBCs with many spiny projections
Acanthocytosis Increased number of RBCs with a few elongated, blunt projections
Schistocytes Small RBC fragments
Rouleaux Clumping of RBCs into linear formations resembling stacks of coins
Autoagglutination Immune aggregation of RBCs into grapelike clusters
Heinz bodies Precipitated Hgb resulting from oxidation
Thrombocytopenia Decreased number of platelets
Thrombocytosis Increased number of platelets
Leukocytosis Increased number of white blood cells (WBCs)
Leukopenia Decreased number of WBCs
Neutrophilia Increased number of neutrophils
Neutropenia Decreased number of neutrophils
Left shift Increased number of immature neutrophils (nonsegs)
Right shift Increased number of hypermature neutrophils (hypersegmentation)
Toxic neutrophils Neutrophils with degenerative changes in their cytoplasm
Reactive lymphocytes Lymphocytes with morphologic evidence of immunologic activation
Monocytosis Increased number of monocytes
Monocytopenia Decreased number of monocytes
Lymphocytosis Increased number of lymphocytes
Lymphopenia Decreased number of lymphocytes
Eosinophilia Increased number of eosinophils
Eosinopenia Decreased number of eosinophils
Basophilia Increased number of basophils
Basopenia Decreased number of basophils
Bicytopenia Decrease in two cell lines (RBCs, WBCs, or platelets)
Pancytopenia Decrease in three cell lines (RBCs, WBCs, and platelets)

Test results outside reference intervals for a given species are usually considered abnormal. However, reference values are often not optimal because they are difficult and expensive to establish for each laboratory, and should be revised every time a lab changes instruments or methods. Reference intervals are usually derived from limited numbers of adult animals not segregated by age, sex, or breed (see Chapter 1). These factors can be significant. For example, a general adult reference interval for canine packed cell volume (PCV; hematocrit; Hct) is 37% to 55%. St. Bernards, however, tend to have PCVs that range from 35% to 40%, whereas the PCVs of greyhounds typically range from 52% to 60%; therefore what is normal in these two breeds hardly overlaps. Prominent age-related changes also occur. At birth, canine RBCs are very large, with a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of about 95 femtoliters (fl). The MCV decreases to adult values by 2 to 3 months of age. At 5 to 6 weeks of age, puppies normally have a PCV around 30%, a plasma protein around 5.3 g/dl, and 3% to 4% reticulocytes. Puppy values could be confused with a regenerative, blood loss anemia if compared with adult reference intervals. Detailed references with information on breed, age, instrument, method, and other variables that affect interpretation should be on hand.16

The second step in evaluating abnormal results is to group abnormal data within the CBC. For example, a low PCV (i.e., anemia) should be linked to tests of bone marrow erythropoiesis, such as reticulocyte count and polychromasia, and observations on RBC morphology (see Chapter 3) to describe the anemia. Additionally, severe thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinemia, and icterus, often aid in diagnosis of the cause of anemia. The mental process of formulating a good description frequently suggests a diagnosis. For example, deciding an anemia is severe, erythroid regeneration is marked, and identifying moderate to many spherocytes in the smear and autoagglutination in the EDTA blood, clearly leads to a diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). Total leukocyte count should be linked with the differential leukocyte count and WBC morphology (see Chapter 4). For example, severe neutropenia with more immature neutrophils than mature neutrophils and marked toxic change, usually indicates gram-negative infection or septicemia. A leukopenia with only lymphopenia and a normal number of leukocytes indicates a chronic stress/steroid process and not inflammation.

The third step in interpretation involves drawing hematologic conclusions from related sets of CBC results (Box 2-2). For example, with anemia one should determine the degree of RBC regeneration by reticulocytes and polychromasia, note RBC morphology, and consider plasma protein concentration and platelet count. If there is a deficiency of one cell type (e.g., thrombocytopenia), then one should check for leukopenia, neutropenia, and nonregenerative anemia to judge bone marrow production of all cell lines.

Magnitude of Hematologic Abnormalities

The magnitude of a change has great diagnostic significance and must be evaluated. Anemia in sick animals is often mild. For example, in Table 2-1, 29% of 737 blood samples indicated anemia; however, 55% of the anemic dogs had mild anemia (i.e., PCV 30% to 37%). Mild anemia is often not a primary hematopoietic disease but secondary to other problems such as inflammatory disease, malignancy, hepatic failure, or renal disease. Diagnostic effort should pursue the primary disease. Severe anemia (i.e., PCV <20% in dogs), however, should be evaluated as a primary hematologic problem. An exception is in pancytopenia, where life span of different cells becomes important. RBCs have a long life span compared to neutrophils and platelets, so anemia in pancytopenia can be mild or unapparent early, while neutropenia and thrombocytopenia may already be moderate to severe.

Frequency of Abnormalities

Numerous hematologic abnormalities are detected by routine CBC testing. The frequency data in Table 2-1 were from two surveys of CBC results from consecutive patients at Michigan State University. The larger survey was a computer search of quantitative values. The smaller survey was a manual search of records that included subjective observations.

Anemia occurred frequently (10% to 29% of hospital patients); thus diagnosis of the cause of anemia is important (see Chapter 3). Hyperproteinemia also is a frequent finding in dogs and cats that may be the result of dehydration, inflammation, and immune stimulation (see Chapter 12).

Results from microscopic evaluation of blood smears are subjective and commonly evaluated as 0 to 4+, with 0 indicating the change is absent and 4+ indicating a maximal increase. An alternative is to use adjectives such as “mild, moderate, or “marked.”

Abnormal RBC shape (e.g., poikilocytosis) was frequently reported in cats and dogs; however, the abnormalities were often mild and clinically insignificant (e.g., 1+ crenation). Although reporting small variations in RBC size and shape may be technically correct, it may not be helpful to the veterinarian reading the report because too many details can obscure the diagnostically important findings. Findings such as blood parasites, Heinz bodies, or 2+ to 4+ spherocytes are less common but are of important diagnostic significance.

Left shift and leukocytosis, indicating inflammation, was moderately frequent (5% to 10%) in these hospital populations of dogs and cats. The greater frequency of toxic changes in feline neutrophils (23%) is due to the propensity of cats to form Döhle bodies (a very mild form of toxic change; see Chapter 4).

Quantitation Techniques

Sample Submission

Anticoagulated blood is required for cell counts. Any visible clots in a blood sample will alter WBC or platelet counts, because distribution of cells in blood is then not uniform. Clinical laboratories should not process clotted samples, because results are invalid and clots may plug hematology instruments. Blood smears submitted with a clotted sample may still be evaluated.

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is the best anticoagulant to preserve cell detail. Heparin can cause poor staining with a diffuse blue background. Formalin or formalin fumes cause poor staining of Wright-stained blood smears, resulting in a blue background. One must keep formalin away from blood and cytology smears, both in the laboratory and in packages sent to referral laboratories. Formalin fumes can affect smears without direct contact. A citrate-based anticoagulant that reduces aggregation of feline platelets (Diatube-H; Becton Dickinson, Oxford, UK) was associated with good cell detail on smears.8

Commercial blood collection tubes contain a vacuum and should be permitted to fill until flow stops to have a proper blood volume-to-anticoagulant ratio. Moderate to severe underfilling of the tube may result in an excessive concentration of EDTA salt, which draws water out of cells, causing RBC shrinkage and decreased PCV and MCV. However, prominent errors are not expected if at least 1 ml of blood is collected into a 4-ml EDTA tube. Tubes with less than 1 ml of blood or with visible clots should be rejected. If very small amounts of blood are collected into tubes with liquid anticoagulant, dilution of blood may be significant, resulting in lower cell counts. Overfilling the tube can potentially dilute out the anticoagulant enough to permit clotting. Citrate blood collection tubes, used for hemostasis testing, are marked with a line that shows the proper final volume to give a 1 : 9 ratio of anticoagulant to blood. A properly filled citrate tube is 10% anticoagulant fluid. It is very important to fill tubes to this line (±10%) to avoid dilution or concentration errors in hemostasis testing.

If not analyzed within 2 to 3 hours, EDTA blood should be refrigerated (4° C). RBC swelling after 6 to 24 hours of storage raises PCV and MCV and lowers mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). RBC swelling may prevent detection of microcytic hypochromic cells in iron deficiency anemia. The RBC count, hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration, Hct, and RBC indices (i.e., MCV, mean corpuscular Hgb [MCH], MCHC) have minimal changes if blood is refrigerated for up to 24 hours.

Blood smears should be prepared immediately and air-dried to avoid artifacts caused by exposure of cells to anticoagulants and cell deterioration during storage and shipment. A great deal of information can be obtained from a fresh blood smear even if the EDTA tube is too old to analyze. Fresh capillary blood (ear prick) provides a higher concentration of parasitized RBCs if blood parasite examination is needed. Blood from an ear prick is streaked out immediately on a blood smear.

Slides should not be mailed in the thin, cardboard mailing cards that fit into envelopes. These envelopes are often machine processed by the post office, and the machines crush the slides. Instead, they should be mailed in rigid plastic containers (e.g., boxes) too bulky to be machine cancelled.


The microhematocrit method for determining PCV (Hct) has several advantages (over hemoglobin concentration or RBC count) to make it the recommended way to estimate RBC mass in evaluation of anemia and polycythemia in small clinics. Additionally, the microhematocrit provides a good quality control check on an automated instrument’s hematocrit when analyzed in parallel with automated testing.

PCV, hemoglobin concentration, and RBC count are equivalent methods to estimate RBC mass in the properly hydrated patient. Microhematocrit is more precise and technically easier than a manual RBC count and provides additional useful information over Hgb determination and RBC count. Gross examination of plasma in the microhematocrit tube allows detection of icterus, hemolysis, or lipemia (Figure 2-1). The microhematocrit can even be used to screen for heartworm disease, because actively moving microfilariae are concentrated in the plasma just above the buffy coat. Plasma protein concentration can be quantified using a refractometer on plasma obtained from one or two microhematocrit tubes.

PCV is determined by centrifuging anticoagulated blood in a microcapillary tube to separate cells from plasma. Microhematocrit tubes are filled about two-thirds to three-fourths full. After centrifugation in a special microhematocrit centrifuge, RBCs are well packed at the bottom. WBCs and platelets appear as a thin white line (i.e., buffy coat) between RBCs and plasma (see Figure 2-1). The volume of blood that is packed RBCs (PCV in % or L/L) is determined. Microhematocrit tubes that contain heparin may be used for direct collection of non-anticoagulated blood. To calculate PCV, one divides the length of packed RBCs by the total length of the packed RBCs, buffy coat, and plasma. The clay plugging the bottom of the tube should not be included. Various microhematocrit reading devices are available.

Error in microhematocrit determination is minimal but, when present, is usually related to centrifugation or very fragile RBCs. Microhematocrit tubes should be centrifuged for 5 minutes. When the PCV is greater than 50%, packing of RBCs by the centrifuge is less complete (i.e., less tight). This causes an overestimation of the PCV. If the microhematocrit tubes are filled to more than two-thirds to three-fourths full, cell packing is also less complete. When a PCV is less than 25%, the packing of RBCs is tighter. This exaggerates the decrease in the PCV and makes the animal seem slightly more anemic. Microhematocrit centrifuges attain high speeds (11,500 to 15,000 rpm), which ensures the proper centrifugal force to pack cells. The speed should be checked periodically, because slower speeds cause poorer cell packing that cannot be compensated for by longer periods of centrifugation. One should check the centrifuge’s brushes three to four times per year and replace them if they are worn. Microhematocrit tubes should be evenly balanced in the centrifuge’s head to prevent unequal weight distribution. If the head is not properly balanced, the wear on the motor is uneven and eventually causes the head to vibrate. One should not use the brake when the head is still rotating at high speeds, because this also causes excessive motor wear.

Total Cell Counts

Total WBC, RBC, and platelet counts can be determined manually using a hemocytometer or with automated instruments. A hemocytometer is an inexpensive, simple glass counting chamber that fits easily in a microscope and does not require calibration and quality control reagents. A hemocytometer count takes more time and is imprecise, but it is a useful method for small clinics that perform WBC or platelet counts only occasionally. Thus this method will be explained. Automated instruments are much more precise, are easier to use, and save time when the number of hematology samples to analyze justifies their purchase.


A hemocytometer is a transparent glass chamber that holds a cell suspension for microscopic cell counting. The hemocytometer is 0.1 mm deep and is divided into subunits by a grid with a precise 3-mm by 3-mm surface area (Figure 2-2). The surface area of the grid used in a procedure thus determines volume of the hemocytometer containing the cells counted. One can mathematically determine the number of cells in a cubic millimeter (i.e., mm3; see Figure 2-2) based on this volume. One should understand these calculations so that the hemocytometer can be used to count cells in other fluids such as cerebrospinal and synovial fluid. In the United States, cell numbers are reported in cells/µl, which equals cells/mm3. This was likely because originally cells were counted in a hemocytometer designed to represent portions as mm3. Most other countries report hematologic cell concentrations in cells × 109/L. A liter contains 1 million (106) µl; therefore a liter would have a million times more cells than 1 µl (see Chapter 1).

The blood (or other fluid) must be diluted so that the number of cells in the chamber is easy to count. A dilution system with plastic containers is easiest. Becton Dickinson (BD) discontinued the Unopette System and now recommends, as an alternative, similar products made by Bioanalytic GmbH ( The amount of dilution needed to provide a reasonable concentration of cells in the chamber varies with expected concentration of cells in blood (or other fluids such as abdominal fluid). Erythrocytes in blood are very numerous, so blood is greatly diluted (e.g., 1 : 200). Note that manual RBC counts are so inaccurate and time consuming that a manual RBC count is not recommended. A microhematocrit is more practical if one does not have an automated hematology instrument. A microhematocrit is even useful for bloody fluids such as abdominal fluid to estimate the amount of hemorrhage. WBC dilution is usually 1 : 20 and platelets are diluted 1 : 100. The reciprocal of the dilution (i.e., 1/dilution) is used in calculation of the final conversion factor (Table 2-2).

The portion of grid in which cells are counted varies for each cell type and even type of counting chamber. For WBC counts in the United States, the outer four squares are counted (see Figure 2-2). For platelets, two squares (2 mm2) are counted. The reciprocal of the area is used in calculating the final conversion factor. Because the hemocytometer is only 0.1 mm deep, counting 1 mm2 represents one tenth of 1 mm3.

To convert cell counts to number/mm3, cell count must be adjusted for the portion of 1 mm3 counted and the dilution of the blood sample (see Table 2-2). The WBC factor of 50 is based on adjustments for depth of the hemocytometer (0.1 mm), area counted (4 mm2), and dilution factor (1 : 20). A different factor can be determined if one chooses to vary from the standard approach.

Hemocytometers have two counting chambers (one on each side). Both chambers should be filled and counted. The number of cells counted from each side should vary by less than 10% for WBC counts. If the cell suspension was not evenly distributed, as indicated by greater variation, the test should be repeated.

Manual counts with a hemocytometer have significant error (e.g., 20% error may occur with WBC counts). This magnitude of error should be considered when interpreting day-to-day changes in WBC counts in animals. For example, a count of 2100 WBCs/µl varies too little from a count of 1900 WBCs/µl the previous day to be considered an improvement. Despite imprecision, manual counts are adequate for most clinical diagnoses for clinicians who do not have need of or access to an automated hematology instrument. Manual counts may be performed when errors in automated counts are suspected.

Erythrocyte Indices

The RBC indices describe the average size and Hgb content of RBCs. Indices were originally calculated from directly determined measurements (i.e., PCV, RBC count, Hgb) by the following equations. Automated cell counters may directly measure cell volume or Hgb concentration of RBCs.

MCV indicates the average volume of the RBCs. An increased, normal, or decreased MCV indicates that the average RBC was macrocytic, normocytic, or microcytic, respectively. A normal or decreased MCHC tends to indicate if RBCs were normochromic or hypochromic, respectively. Hyperchromic RBCs (i.e., increased MCHC) indicate an instrument error, such as hemolysis or the presence of Heinz bodies. MCH indicates absolute Hgb content per average RBC. MCHC indicates concentration of Hgb in an average RBC.

Note that these mean values require a large percentage of abnormal RBCs for the MCV or MCHC to be drawn out of the reference interval. Therefore MCV and MCHC often give a misleading picture of the true presence of macrocytic hypochromic or microcytic hypochromic RBCs. For example, only 8.3% of blood samples of 6752 dogs with regenerative anemia had both increased MCV and decreased MCHC despite the fact that regenerative anemia (increased reticulocytes) is truly macrocytic and hypochromic.2 Use of MCV and MCHC usually gives the wrong morphologic classification of the animal’s anemia.

Automated Hematology Cell Counters

Impedance Counters

The impedance principle was the standard method of cell counting in hematologic instruments and remains a common method in many current instruments. Using the impedance counting principle (i.e., Coulter principle), cells are diluted in an electrolyte solution and drawn through an aperture (hole in an electrode). The electrical resistance across the aperture changes as a pulse with each cell because cells are poor conductors of electricity. The frequency of the change in resistance indicates cell number, and the magnitude of the change in resistance indicates cell size. Impedance counters must be electronically adjusted to count only cells within an appropriate size interval. This size interval is set by adjusting electronic thresholds for each species. Impedance counters directly count cell numbers, measure cell size, and then mathematically calculate the Hct, MCHC, and MCH.

Platelet-erythrocyte histograms should be inspected for adequate separation between the platelet and erythrocyte peaks to avoid errors. The histogram should show two peaks and indicate which cell types were counted as platelets or RBCs by the impedance instrument (Figure 2-3). There must be a clear separation “valley” between the RBC and platelet peaks. This valley and a dashed line correctly placed between RBC and platelet peaks assures that the counts were accurate. A frequent error is that there is overlap in the size of platelets and RBCs so that the instrument cannot correctly determine the division between them.

Impedance counters count the number of RBCs and determine the size of each RBC in that sample and then calculate a hematocrit (Hct) essentially by multiplying the number of RBCs by their size (e.g., RBCs × MCV ÷ 10) or by a summation of individual RBC sizes. This is unlike the classic method of centrifugation of blood to pack RBCs and determine a PCV. Therefore instrument counts are better called a hematocrit (Hct) instead of packed cell volume (PCV). For simplicity, PCV is usually used in this book to indicate Hct or PCV. PCV by the microhematocrit method is a good quality control addition to performing a CBC with a hematology instrument. If the variation between the microhematocrit’s PCV and the instrument’s Hct is greater than 3% to 5%, this suggests a technical error, which should be clarified.

Newer impedance instruments provide additional information, such as three to four cell differential leukocyte counts, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and reticulocyte count, and they may identify the presence of NRBCs.4

Laser Light Scatter Cell Counters

Newer automated hematology analyzers often use a laser detection system in a flow cytometer to measure size and internal complexity of cells based on light scatter at different angles.7 Stains are added to help differentiate types of leukocytes or reticulocytes. Two veterinary instruments designed for large referral laboratories are the Advia 120/2120 (previously the H-1; Siemens Medical Solutions) and the Sysmex XT-2000iV (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan). The Sysmex reports both laser (optical; PLT-O) and impedance (PLT-I) platelet counts. These newer instruments provide abundant information about each cell type. The RDW numerically describes the variability in RBC size (anisocytosis), and the hemoglobin distribution width (HDW) describes variability in Hgb concentration (see Chapter 3). Tvedten prefers interpreting the morphology of the graphics rather than many numerical results such as RDW, HDW, and several others.

Graphic displays of cells aid in diagnosis and detection of laboratory errors.13 The Advia measures and reports the volume and Hgb content of each erythrocyte analyzed (Figures 2-4 and 2-5). The Advia system is the most sensitive and specific way to correctly classify anemia as normocytic normochromic, macrocytic hypochromic, or microcytic hypochromic. As described in RBC indices, the use of MCV and MCHC more often gives an incorrect classification than the true type of anemia. RBC cytograms illustrate normal and abnormal RBC populations based on cell size and Hgb concentration. The Advia 120/2120 automated reticulocyte analysis provides not only the absolute and relative reticulocyte counts but even mean reticulocyte volume, which may aid in judging the response of a dog with iron deficiency to treatment. The color-coded reticulocyte graphics in Figure 2-5 show at a glance that the anemia in the dog was clearly regenerative. Advia 120/2120 and Sysmex XT-2000iV reticulocyte analysis works well for canine reticulocytes. The Advia and Sysmex instruments detect mainly the aggregate-type feline reticulocyte but do not detect even great changes in punctate reticulocytes.


FIGURE 2-4 The Advia 2120 instrument graphics best illustrate the three basic types of anemia, which are normocytic normochromic anemia (A), macrocytic hypochromic anemia (B), and microcytic hypochromic anemia (C). The graphics include a red blood cell (RBC) cytogram, which is a nine-box grid, in the top row. The RBC cytogram displays each individual erythrocyte analyzed based on that cell’s volume (V) on the vertical axis and that cell’s Hgb concentration (HC) on the horizontal axis. There are two histograms under this nine-box grid. The RBC volume histogram is equivalent to the vertical axis of the cytogram and shows the number of RBCs based on volume. The two vertical lines reflect upper and lower reference limits. The Hgb histogram is equivalent to the horizontal axis of the cytogram and shows the number of RBCs based on cell hemoglobin concentration. A, The dog with normocytic normochromic anemia had all RBCs within the central box or vertical lines on the histograms, as would a normal nonanemic dog. B, The dog with macrocytic hypochromic anemia was an IMHA case with many immature (macrocytic hypochromic) RBCs that extended up and to the left from the central box on the cytogram. Extension of cells to the right on the RBC volume histogram reflect that they were macrocytic. These RBCs also extended to the left on the cytogram and Hgb histogram, indicating they were hypochromic. Unique to the Advia 2120 is the display of hypochromic RBCs. The Hgb histogram shows two peaks, and the area “under the curve” reflects the relative number (%) of RBCs in the left peak, which were hypochromic. In the IMHA case, there were more hypochromic (left peak) than normochromic (right peak) RBCs. Thus at a glance one can determine the magnitude of a regenerative response of immature RBCs (usually reticulocytes). Additionally, a cluster of RBCs in the upper central box of the cytogram were RBCs in autoagglutination. C, This dog had a microcytic hypochromic anemia due to iron deficiency that was so extreme that there were too few normal normocytic normochromic RBCs remaining to show where normal cells should be found. The straight lines at the bottom and left of the cells in the cytogram and a line on the left of the two histograms indicate that the Advia 2120 did not believe canine RBCs could be small or hypochromic and excluded them from analysis (truncated).

Stay updated, free articles. Join our Telegram channel

Sep 10, 2016 | Posted by in SMALL ANIMAL | Comments Off on The Complete Blood Count, Bone Marrow Examination, and Blood Banking: General Comments and Selected Techniques

Full access? Get Clinical Tree

Get Clinical Tree app for offline access