Sneezing is a protective reflex mediated by the medulla oblongata. Sensory input from pain fibres (trigeminal nerve) in the nasal mucosa initiate the reflex. A rapid inspiration followed by the explosive passage of air through the nose and mouth expels irritants. Any nasal disease may present as an acute onset of persistent sneezing. Nasal discharge typically develops.
is an outburst of noisy forceful inspiration triggered by nasopharyngeal irritation which typically occurs in small breed dogs of any age. Episodes last seconds and can be associated with excitement or drinking. The problem is self-limiting and does not result in anoxia or collapse. Faulty interplay of the epiglottis and soft palate is thought to be the cause. It is not a sign of neurological disease.