Skull

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Figure 653 Lateral projection of skull with teeth shadows excluded for clarity.
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A Atlas


B Axis


C Stylohyoid bone


D Epihyoid bone


E Ceratohyoid bone


F Basihyoid bone


G Thyrohyoid bone


1 Incisive bone


2 Nasal bone


3 Frontal bone


4 Parietal bone


5 Osseous tentorium of the cerebellum


6 Interparietal bone


7 Occipital bone


7(a) External occipital protuberance or ‘nuchal crest’


8 Occipital condyle


9 Jugular process of occipital bone


10 Petrous temporal bone or temporal bone-petrosal part


11 Tympanic bulla of temporal bone or temporal bone-tympanic part


12 External acoustic meatus of temporal bone


13 Zygomatic process of temporal bone or temporal bone-squamous part


14 Retroarticular process of temporal bone


15 Mandibular fossa of temporal bone


16 Palatine process of maxilla. The vomer lies dorsally.


17 Palatine bone. Rostrally the palatine process of maxilla is included.


18 Sphenoid sinus of presphenoid


19 Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone. Rostral limit only is visible.


20 Ethmoidal fossa


21 Ethmoidal conchae


22 Dorsal nasal conchae


22(a) Dorsal nasal meatus


23 Middle nasal conchae


23(a) Mass of conchae attached to the ethmoid bone, from the dorsal and middle conchae. Seen as a radiopaque region and must not be mistaken for a foreign body.


24 Ventral nasal conchae


24(a) Ventral nasal meatus


25 Dorsal orbital margin


26 Basisphenoid bone


27 Frontal sinuses


28 Mandibular body


29 Mandibular ramus


30 Coronoid process of mandible


31 Condyloid or articular process of mandible


32 Angular process of mandible


33 Mandibular foramina


34 Mandibular canal


35 Mental foramen


36 Lamina dura


37 Soft palate


38 Nasopharynx


39 Epiglottis



Figure 654 Lateral projection of skull to demonstrate details of teeth excluded in Figure 653.
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1 Upper incisors. Total of six.


2 Lower incisors. Total of six.


3 Upper canines. Total of two.


4 Lower canines. Total of two.


5 Upper premolars. Total of six.


6 Lower premolars. Total of four.


7 Upper molars. Total of two.


8 Lower molars. Total of two.


Note that the term ‘upper’ can be replaced by ‘superior’ and ‘lower’ by ‘inferior’.



Figure 655 Dorsoventral projection of skull. British Domestic Short Haired cat 1 year old, neutered male. (Approximately 150% of original size.)
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Figure 656 Dorsoventral projection of skull with teeth shadows excluded for clarity.
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A Atlas


B Axis


C Cartilaginous ear canal


D Pinna


1 Incisive bone


2 Maxilla or maxillary bone


2(a) Maxillary teeth obscuring bony shadows of maxillary bone (lamina dura seen as radiopaque lines)


3 Vomer and nasal septum (the osseous part of the nasal septum contributes to the radiopaque line)


4 Temporal process of zygomatic bone


5 Frontal process of zygomatic bone


6 Zygomatic process of frontal bone


7 Zygomatic process of temporal bone. Forms zygomatic arch with (4).


8 Frontal sinuses


9 Sphenoidal sinuses


10 Cribriform plate of ethmoid enclosing ethmoidal fossa


11 Ethmoturbinates and dorsal nasal concha (dorsal nasal concha is not seen clearly on this projection)


12 Border of choanae formed by palatine bone


13 Medial wall of orbit


14 Ventral margin of orbit


15 Lamina dura


15(a) Mandibular lamina dura


15(b) Maxillary lamina dura


16 Mandibular body


17 Coronoid process of mandibular ramus


18 Angular process of mandibular ramus


19 Condyloid or articular process of mandibular ramus


20 Retroarticular process of temporal bone


21 Tympanic bulla of temporal bone


22 External acoustic meatus of temporal bone


23 Internal acoustic meatus of temporal bone


24 Jugular foramen


25 Petrous temporal bone


26 Mastoid process of petrous temporal bone


27 Occipital condyle


28 Nuchal crest


29 Hamulus of pterygoid bone


30 Osseous tentorium of cerebellum


31 Foramen magnum



Figure 657 Dorsoventral projection of skull to demonstrate details of teeth shadows excluded in Figure 656.
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1 Lower incisors. Total of six.


2 Upper incisors. Total of six.


3 Lower canines. Total of two.


4 Upper canines. Total of two.


5 Lower premolars. Total of four.


6 Upper premolars. (The 1st premolar in this cat appears to be present, making a total of eight instead of six. This is unusual.)


7 Lower molars. Total of two.


8 Upper molars. Total of two.


Note that the term ‘lower’ can be replaced by ‘inferior’ and the term ‘upper’ by ‘superior’.


Temporomandibular joints, single relaxed lateral projection: Figures 658659



Figure 658 Relaxed lateral skull centred on temporomandibular joint. British Domestic Short Haired cat 2 years old, neutered female. (Approximately 220% of original size.)
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Figure 659 Relaxed lateral skull centred on temporomandibular joint.
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A Temporomandibular joint of recumbent side


B Temporomandibular joint of non-recumbent side


1 Body of mandible


2 Angular process of mandible


3 Condyloid or articular process of mandible


4 Coronoid process of mandible


5 Mandibular fossa of temporal bone


6 Retroarticular process of temporal bone


7 Tympanic bulla of temporal bone


8 External acoustic meatus of temporal bone


9 Cribriform plate


10 Petrous temporal bone


11 Cranial base


12 Occipital condyle


13 Atlas


14 Stylohyoid bone


15 Epihyoid bone


16 Ceratohyoid bone


17 Basihyoid bone


18 Thyrohyoid bone


19 Soft palate


20 Epiglottis


21 Rostral limit of arytenoid cartilage


22 Nasopharynx


23 Oropharynx


Tympanic bullae, single oblique projection: Figures 660661



Figure 660 Rostroventral–caudodorsal oblique (open mouth) projection of skull centred on tympanic bullae. British Domestic Short Haired cat 2 year-old, neutered female. (Approximately 160% of original size.)
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Jun 23, 2017 | Posted by in ANIMAL RADIOLOGY | Comments Off on Skull
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