Skeletal system

Chapter 3 Skeletal system




The skeletal system is the ‘framework’ upon which the body is built – it provides support, protection and enables the animal to move (Fig. 3.1). The joints are considered to be an integral part of the skeleton. The skeletal system is made of the specialised connective tissues, bone and cartilage.



The functions of the skeletal system are:








Bone structure and function



Bone shape


Bones can be categorised according to their shape:







Some specialised types of bone are:






Development of bone


The process by which bone is formed is called ossification and there are two types: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. The cells responsible for laying down new bone are called osteoblasts; the cells that destroy or remodel bone are called osteoclasts.




Endochondral ossification


The process of endochondral ossification (Fig. 3.3) is as follows:











The axial skeleton



The skull


The bones of the head include the skull, nasal chambers, mandible or lower jaw and hyoid apparatus. The functions of the skull are:









Cranium


The caudal part of the skull that provides the bony ‘case’ in which the brain sits is called the cranium (Figs 3.4, 3.5). The bones of the cranium include:














Jul 18, 2016 | Posted by in PHARMACOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS | Comments Off on Skeletal system

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