GENETICS & BREED PREDISPOSITION: Narcolepsy is inherited with autosomal recessive transmission in the Doberman pinscher, Labrador retriever, and dachshund and occurs sporadically in other breeds of dogs. Clinical signs are often most severe in small dog breeds.
Nasal Cutaneous Disorders
Dermatoses affecting the bridge of the nose (haired) or the nasal planum (hairless). This distribution of lesions is relatively common in dogs and cats, and lesions can be restricted to the nasal area or be part of a more generalized condition.
The presenting complaint of nasal cutaneous abnormalities warrants a dermatologic examination. Complementary testing then varies depending on the results of the dermatologic exam and resultant list of possible differential diagnoses.
(Courtesy Dr. Nadia Pagé.)
HISTORY, CHIEF COMPLAINT: Acute onset of paroxysmal sneezing or nasal discharge may suggest nasal foreign bodies or an early viral disease. Husbandry and management practices predispose animals to certain disorders. Examples: recent boarding or exposure to new animals (viral infections); hunting and geographic location (nasal foreign bodies); pertinent medical history (dental disease, history of neoplasia, immunosuppression); exposure to irritating aerosols (hairspray, paints, etc.); vaccine history (viral respiratory tract infections). A complete history should include:
Any of the following may be indicated, depending on signalment, history, and preliminary exam findings: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella testing; prothrombin time; partial thromboplastin time; thoracic radiographs; nasal swabs; fungal titer determinations; nasal radiography; CT; MRI; rhinoscopy; biopsy; deep tissue cultures; and exploratory rhinotomy.
Determining whether nasal discharge is unilateral or bilateral is a simple but critical first step in diagnosis. Neoplasia, foreign bodies, dental disease, and other conditions are common causes of unilateral nasal disease and discharge; other local and systemic causes often result in bilateral disease.