73 Urinary incontinence – an introduction
Urination becomes a voluntary action in the young animal. It is governed by interactions of the CNS and PNS, many of them reflex. Cerebral influences inhibit or initiate urination. The pontine micturition centre is the major coordinator of the storage and voiding phases. The spinal cord transmits sensory and motor impulses. The pelvic, hypogastric and pudendal nerves directly innervate the smooth and skeletal muscle of the bladder and sphincter. Fast conduction through the tight connections between bladder muscle fibres facilitates bladder contraction (Fig. 73.1).
is the lack of voluntary control of urination. Neurological causes rarely affect the bladder and sphincter alone. Other abnormalities are found in the history or on examination. Urological disease must always be considered as a cause or a sequela.