History, Chief Complaint
Physical Exam Findings
Etiology and Pathophysiology
• High vagal tone (caused by eye pressure during ophthalmic surgery, increased ICP, hypothermia)
• Electrolyte disturbances (calcium, magnesium, and especially potassium). Foals with urinary bladder rupture and hyperkalemia are at an increased risk of developing bradycardia during anesthesia.
• Administration of drugs (digoxin, verapamil, diltiazem, sedatives, and anesthetics)
Diagnosis is made by electrocardiography. Further tests (blood examination, echocardiography, are necessary to look for underlying disease.
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