Signalment and History: The First Considerations

CHAPTER 1
Signalment and History: The First Considerations


Curtis W. Dewey & Ronaldo C. da Costa


Introduction


When presented with a patient that is suspected of having a neurologic disorder, the signalment (i.e. breed, age, and sex) and history are often helpful in guiding the clinician toward the most likely diagnosis. It is important to recognize, however, that this information is adjunctive to the neurologic examination. Properly weighting the importance of signalment and history will help avoid “tunnel vision” when devising diagnostic plans and implementing treatment strategies.


Signalment1–3, 5


The information in Table 1.1 and Table 1.2 provides a summary of suspected and confirmed breed predilections for various neurologic disorders. Knowledge of breed predilections can be very helpful when considering differential diagnoses, especially for uncommon presentations (e.g. neuropathies in juvenile patients). The clinician should be aware of the limitations of breed predilection tables, however. Newly discovered breed predilections or undiscovered breed predilections will not necessarily be represented in a table. In other words, breed predilection tables tend to increase in size with successive textbook editions. Also, breeds other than those reportedly predisposed to a particular disorder may occasionally be affected by that disorder. Finally, certain rare disorders may have only one or a few members of a certain breed reported in the literature. Since some of these disorders are inherited (e.g. lysosomal storage diseases), it may be assumed that the breed is at risk, despite low numbers of actually confirmed cases.


Table 1.1 Breed-associated neurologic abnormalities of dogs.































































































































































































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Apr 7, 2020 | Posted by in SMALL ANIMAL | Comments Off on Signalment and History: The First Considerations

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Afghan Hound Acquired (idiopathic) laryngeal paralysis
Hereditary myelopathy (leukodystrophy)
Narcolepsy/cataplexy
Retinal degeneration
Airedale Terrier Cerebellar abiotrophy
Cerebellar hypoplasia
Congenital myasthenia gravis
Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis
Akita Acquired myasthenia gravis
Congenital deafness
Congenital vestibular disease (bilateral)
Glycogenolysis (type III)
Alaskan Husky Gangliosidosis (GM1)
Mitochondrial encephalopathy (Leigh’s disease, subacute necrotizing encephalopathy)
Alaskan Malamute Hereditary polyneuropathy
Myelodysplasia
Muscular dystrophy
Osteochondromatosis of the vertebrae
American Bulldog Ceroid lipofuscinosis
American Eskimo dog Congenital deafness
Australian Blue Heeler Congenital deafness
Australian Cattle dog Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Congenital deafness
Dermatomyositis
Mitochondrial encephalomyelopathy
Myotonia congenita
Polioencephalomyelopathy
Australian Kelpie Cerebellar abiotrophy
Australian Shepherd Ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN 6)
Congenital deafness
Basset Hound Cervical spondylomyelopathy (bony stenosis)
Degenerative disc disease (type I)
Globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe’s disease)
Glycoproteinosis (Lafora’s disease)
Bavarian Mountain dog Cerebellar abiotrophy
Beagle Agenesis vermis cerebellum
Congenital deafness
Congenital vestibular disease
Cerebellar abiotrophy
Globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe’s disease)
Glycoproteinosis (Lafora’s disease)
Idiopathic epilepsy
Intervertebral disc disease (type I)
Methionine deficiency-related spinal myelinopathy
Narcolepsy
Necrotizing vasculitis (steroid meningitis, Beagle pain syndrome)
Beagle mix Gangliosidosis (GM1)
Belgian Sheepdog Congenital nystagmus
Muscular dystrophy
Belgian Shepherd (Groenendael) Muscular dystrophy
Belgian Shepherd (Malinois) Degenerative myelopathy
Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis
Leukodystrophy/spongy degeneration (encephalomyelopathy; Belgian Shepherd (Malinois)/Shepherd mixed-breed dogs)
Belgian Shepherd (Tervuren) Idiopathic epilepsy
Muscular dystrophy
Bern Running dog Cerebellar degeneration
Bernese Mountain dog Aggression
Cerebellar abiotrophy
Degenerative myelopathy
Epilepsy
Hepatocerebellar degeneration
Histiocytic sarcoma
Hypomyelination/dysmyelination (dysmyelinogenesis)
Meningitis/meningomyelitis (necrotizing vasculitis)
Bichon Frise Atlantoaxial instability
Caudal occipital malformation syndrome
Congenital deafness
Idiopathic tremor syndrome (steroid responsive)
Blue Tick Hound Globoid cell leukodystrophy
Boerboel Cervical spondylomyelopathy
Border Collie Cerebellar abiotrophy
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Congenital deafness
Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy
Idiopathic epilepsy
Sensory neuropathy
Border Terrier Spongiform leukoencephalopathy
Borzoi Cervical spondylomyelopathy
Congenital deafness
Boston Terrier Brain tumor (gliomas)
Cerebellar abiotrophy
Congenital deafness
Congenital hydrocephalus
Congenital vertebral malformation (hemivertebrae)
Intracranial arachnoid cyst
Muscular dystrophy
Myelodysplasia
Vermian hypoplasia
Bouvier des Flandres Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy
Hereditary laryngeal paralysis
Muscular dystrophy
Pharyngeal/esophageal myopathy
Boxer dog Autoimmune polymyositis (+/– paraneoplastic)
Congenital deafness
Corticosteroid-responsive (aseptic) meningitis
Degenerative myelopathy
Disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)
Head-bobbing (suspected dyskinesia)
Neuroaxonal dystrophy
Neuronal vacuolation
Pilonidal (dermoid) sinus
Primary brain tumor (glioma, meningioma)
Progressive axonopathy
Sensory neuropathy
Spondylosis deformans
Briquet Griffon Vendéen Spinal muscular atrophy (motor neuron disease)
Brittany Spaniel Cerebellar abiotrophy (late onset)
Muscular dystrophy
Sensory ganglioradiculitis
Spinal muscular atrophy
Spinocerebellar degeneration
Brussels Griffon Chiari-like malformation (CLM)
Bull Mastiff Cerebellar abiotrophy
Cervical spondylomyelopathy
Extradural synovial cyst
Leukodystrophy/spongiform degeneration
Bull Terrier Cerebellar abiotrophy
Congenital deafness
Hereditary laryngeal paralysis
Hyperkinesis
Tail chasing
Cairn Terrier Globoid cell leukodystrophy
Hydrocephalus
Portosystemic shunt (hepatic encephalopathy)
Spinal muscular atrophy (motor neuron disease)
Cardigan Welsh Corgi Congenital deafness
Sensory ganglioradiculitis
Catahoula Leopard dog Congenital deafness
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Chiari-like malformation (CLM)
Cerebellar infarct
Congenital deafness
Dorsolateral vertebral canal stenosis and compression at C2–C3
Episodic muscle hypertonicity (“falling cavaliers”—probable dyskinesia)
Femoral thromboembolism
Fly chasing behavior
Idiopathic epilepsy Primary secretory otitis media
Chihuahua Atlantoaxial instability
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Congenital deafness
Congenital hydrocephalus
Muscular dystrophy
Necrotizing meningoencephalitis
Neuroaxonal dystrophy
Chinese Crested Cerebellar abiotrophy
Chow Chow Cerebellar hypoplasia
Congenital deafness
Hypomyelination/dysmyelination (dysmyelinogenesis)
Myotonia congenita
Clumber Spaniel Cerebellar abiotrophy
Mitochondrial myopathy
Cocker Spaniel Cerebellar abiotrophy
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Congenital deafness
Congenital vestibular disease (English)
Cryptococcosis (American)
Hydrocephalus
Idiopathic facial nerve paralysis
Intervertebral disc disease (type I)
Juvenile epilepsy
Leukodystrophy/spongiform degeneration

Multisystem neuronal degeneration (red-haired)
Muscular dystrophy
Myopathy (lipid storage, mitochondrial, phosphofructokinase deficiency)
Myotonia congenita
Collie (rough-coated) Cerebellar abiotrophy
Dermatomyositis
Optic nerve hypoplasia
Sensory trigeminal neuropathy
Collie (scotch) Congenital deafness
Dermatomyositis
Distal polyneuropathy
Collie (smooth-coated) Congenital deafness
Dermatomyositis
Neuroaxonal dystrophy
Spinal muscular atrophy
Coton de Tuléar Cerebellar abiotrophy (two forms)
Dachshund Cerebellar abiotrophy
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Congenital deafness (dappled)
Glycoproteinosis
Idiopathic epilepsy
Intervertebral disc disease (type I)
Mucopolysaccharidosis (type III; wire-haired)
Myasthenia gravis (congenital, acquired)
Narcolepsy/cataplexy
Neuronal glycoproteinosis (Lafora’s disease)
Sensory neuropathy (long-haired)
Dalmatian Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Cervical spondylomyelopathy
Congenital deafness
Episodic muscle hypertonicity (“cramp”)
Hypomyelination/dysmyelination (dysmyelinogenesis)
Laryngeal paralysis/polyneuropathy complex
Leukodystrophy/spongy degeneration
Doberman Pinscher Cervical spondylomyelopathy
Congenital deafness
Congenital vestibular disease (uni or bilateral)
Dancing Doberman disease
Idiopathic head tremor
Idiopathic self-mutilation (sensory neuropathy)
Immune mediated myositis
Narcolepsy/Cataplexy
Dogo Argentino Congenital deafness
Laryngeal paralysis/polyneuropathy complex
Dogue de Bordeaux Cranial thoracic stenosis
English Bulldog Cerebellar abiotrophy
Congenital deafness
Congenital vertebral malformation (Hemivertebra)
Hydrocephalus
Idiopathic head tremor
Sacrococcygeal malformation
Spina bifida
English Foxhound Methionine deficiency-related spinal myelinopathy (Hound ataxia)
English Pointer Cerebellar abiotrophy
Sensory neuropathy (automutilation)
Spinal muscular atrophy
English Setter Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Congenital deafness
Fila Brasileiro Intervertebral disc disease (type II)
Fox Terrier Congenital deafness
Myasthenia gravis (congenital)
Spinocerebellar degeneration
French Bulldog Arachnoid diverticulum
Congenital deafness
Congenital vertebral malformation (Hemivertebrae)
Idiopathic head tremor
Gammel Dansk Honsehund Congenital myasthenic syndrome (presynaptic)
German Shepherd dog Acquired myasthenia gravis
Autoimmune polymyositis
Cervical spondylomyelopathy
Congenital deafness
Congenital megaesophagus
Congenital vestibular disease
Cranial thoracic disc disease (protrusion)
Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis
Degenerative myelopathy
Fibrotic myopathy
Giant axonal neuropathy
Hereditary laryngeal paralysis (white coat)
Idiopathic epilepsy
Intervertebral disc disease (type II)
Masticatory myositis
Mitochondrial myopathy
Mucopolysaccharidosis
Nephroblastoma
Neuroaxonal dystrophy
Spinal muscular atrophy (motor neuron disease)