Role of Dairy Farming in Rural Development


  • Siraj Raja
    IMT Ghaziabad, India
  • Sanya Sehgal
    IMT Ghaziabad, India


ABSTRACT


Dairy farming is one of the growing industries. It offers multiple opportunities to people and leave a sustainable impact on society, environment and economy. In this chapter we discuss about its reach and establishment in rural areas and how this industry can play an instrumental role in rural development. The present case captures and reviews the functioning of a dairy farm situated in Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, a state in India. The chapter narrates the role of various heads working at this farm and elaborates the steps involved from procuring the dairy products to its treatment and finally to its catering to the consumer, this case is developed through a rigorous literature review. To assess and establish the role of dairy farming in rural development, this chapter discusses the three tier AMUL model of Gujarat, India is also reviewed. This model by now is the most structured one and lays the foundation for dairy farming in the country. It also demonstrates that dairy farming can become instrumental in rural development.


INTRODUCTION


Dairy farming from being customary family run organizations, today has become a specialized and well established dairy industry with mechanical intrusion in all its functions. We have seen growth in dairy farming supplies which help current dairy farmers to take care of cows and buffaloes. This support in the business has made considerable contribution by generating alternative occupations for individuals. Consequently a large number of dairy farmers run dairy farms, especially in towns and supply the dairy products to expansive organizations, to be finally offered as retail product to consumers.


In the process of generating quality product, the best approach for the dairy farmer is to operate his dairy farm that gives greatest benefits to the end organization using his produce. Additionally, it should also be able to sustain the impact of dairy farms on situations and creatures for an extended period.


DAIRY FARMING IN INDIA


As indicated by ASSOCHAM report (2010) milk handling in India is liable to achieve 190 million tons by 2015 (ref. Tables 1 and 2 for current production capabilities) with a yearly turnover of Rs.5 Lakh Cr. With planning commission focusing on 4.5 to 5% development for Animal farming in the twelfth arrangement and the World Bank’s contribution of Rs1584 Cr to National Dairy plan, the division is going to witness sound development in the years to come. Further a plan of Rs17, 300 Cr. National Dairy Plan by NDDB for the next 15 years will be propelled soon. It is speculated that the first stage will have Rs 2000 Cr as opening balance.


As one of the significant hotspot for employment in rural regions, animal farming receives prime significance. To make animals division more profitable creature administration frameworks and creation efficiencies need to be moved forward. Separated from presenting new types of animal Government of AP arrangements to create grub nurseries, bund manor, lasting feed harvests and grain protection over next 4 years.


In today’s mechanical world there have been numerous developments in current dairy cultivation. It is now accepted that a beneficial business such as dairy farming in India need diligent work, authentic positioning and a dynamic and extremely cautious directors and managers.


DAIRY INDUSTRY IN INDIA


The Indian dairy industry is growing rapidly, keeping pace with the technical advancements as far and wide as possible. Today, India is recognized as ‘The Oyster’ of the worldwide dairy industry. It offers vibrant opportunities to people around the world, who wish to explore one of the world’s biggest and quickest developing markets for milk and milk products. Numerous gainful alternatives and opportunities galore for Indian dairy farmers with the expansion of this industry and its foreign operations to India. The international dairy industry may exchange engineering, sign mergers or use India as a sourcing place for local fares. The liberalization of Indian economy supports and lures MNC’s and remote moguls alike.


India’s dairy division is working to triple its handling in coming 10 years in perspective of growing potential for fare to Europe and the West. With anticipated WTO regulations, that will come into power in impending years, all the nations which are among enormous dairy product exporters, might need to withdraw the backing and subsidy to their domesticated milk items segment. Likewise India today is the most reduced expense maker for every liter of milk on the planet, at 27 pennies, contrasted and the US’ 63 pennies, and Japan’s $2.8 [National Dairy Development Board, 2013]. Additionally to exploit this least cost of milk generation and expanding processing in the nation, multinational organizations want to extend their exercises here. Some of these milk makers have effectively acquired quality standard authentications from the powers. This will help them in showcasing their items in outside nations in transformed structure.



Table 1. Current production capabilities: India’s Milk Production by species in tons (FAOSTAT, 2013)





































































Year Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
All Milk Production in tons India 95619000 99348000 105712000 108618000 11493000 116904000 119444000
USA 80254500 82463000 84189100 86177400 85880500 87474000 89015200
% Difference between India & USA 19% 20% 26% 26% 30% 34% 34%
Cow Milk Production India 39759000 14148000 44601000 47006000 47825000 49960000 52500000
USA 80254000 82463000 84189100 86177400 85880500 87474400 89015200
% Difference between India & USA 102% 100% 89% 83% 80% 75% 70%


Table 2. Current production capabilities: Milk production in India and the United States of America (FAOSTAT, 2013)





































































Year Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
All Milk Production in tons India 95619000 99348000 105712000 108618000 11493000 116904000 119444000
USA 80254500 82463000 84189100 86177400 85880500 87474000 89015200
% Difference between India & USA 19% 20% 26% 26% 30% 34% 34%
Cow Milk Production India 39759000 14148000 44601000 47006000 47825000 49960000 52500000
USA 80254000 82463000 84189100 86177400 85880500 87474400 89015200
% Difference between India & USA 102% 100% 89% 83% 80% 75% 70%

OPERATION FLOOD


Government is heartily supporting the dairy division by actualizing different plans. Everything began with the White Revolution under the title Operation Flood (OF) Program started in 1970. By advertising Anand Pattern of dairy cooperatives, OF visualized growth in resource gainfulness, acquired repute of perfection in enhanced personal satisfaction of milk makers and guaranteed supply of value milk and other dairy items to shoppers at sensible cost in a free nature’s domain. Taking after the cooperative way, market turned milk handling and modernization of dairying, milk generation, preparing and showcasing grew significantly.


The goals of Operation Flood were:



  • • To increased milk processing (‘a surge of milk’)
  • • To augment country earnings
  • • To ensure reasonable costs for customers

In OF zones, the nation has more than 1 lakh composed essential town dairy cooperatives at present with a total enrollment of 1.1 Cr. Producers. These primaries are unified into 170 region helpful milk unions and further to state agreeable dairy alliances. The dairy helpful system is evaluated to have gathered near 229 lakh kilograms for every day in 2007-08 ensuing in the installment of a total sum surpassing Rs.7000 Cr. to the milk makers throughout the year. It is seen that 14 significant dairying states viz. Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Haryana, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala and Orissa represent 92% of India’s milk creation.


IMPROVEMENT IN RURAL LIVELIHOOD THROUGH DAIRY FARMING


The sustenance of country employments is right now in question than any other time in the recent past, in the face of investment liberalization. Employment choices are contracting in rustic ranges, more so in eco-delicate areas, for example, dry spell, desert inclined mountainous zones and other immature/regressive locale. Quickly developing markets for domesticated animals items and dairy items specifically (owing to climb in for every capita earnings) are opening new roads for improving country livelihoods. Dairy farming plays huge part in supporting the rustic livelihoods, despite the fact that farmer suicides, relocation, ailing health/sick wellbeing are broadly common in India. In any case, a percentage of the dairy based dry spell inclined areas make fast strides in improving neediness by significantly helping the District/State farming economy.


EMPLOYMENT


Livestock animals segment gives job to 18 million individuals and about 70% of them are ladies. Further, dairy part is the significant wellspring of salary for an expected 27.6 million individuals. Around these, 65 to 70% are small, peripheral farmers and land-less workers. The dairy part backs around 10 million parts/ agriculturists through one lakh helpful social orders existing in the nation. Separated from livelihood created by rearing of animals, the obtainment of milk and its preparing additionally gives significant vocation. Case in point is Punjab, MILKFED, with its system of in excess of 5,000 town Milk Producers’ Agreeable Societies, underpins in excess of 3 lakh Milk Producers. Further, MILKFED and its units have a work power of about 5,000 workers and offers occupation to an alternate 10,000 specialists who work for milk obtainment and specializes in segments such as include supply and delivery to retail outlets. Comparable number of workforce is utilized in all the milk leagues. Further, under SGSY (Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana), the main independent work program for country zones, something like 35% swarojgaries selected dairy cultivating as pay producing movement. The incremental work chart included 11 man-days for every month and the incremental net pay created was Rs. 865 for every month for every individual. (Nationwide Study, 2005).


CONTRIBUTION TO INDIAN ECONOMY


Dairying has turned into an essential auxiliary wellspring of pay for a huge number of country families and has accepted a paramount part in giving work and salary. Indian Dairying is novel in more than one ways. The extraordinary characteristic of the framework is that about 120 million rural families are occupied with milk preparation exercises as against huge specific dairy farmers in the west. Throughout the post freedom period, advancements made in dairy area has been stupendous. Milk preparation has expanded more than four folds. This noteworthy development exertion talks volume about the co-facilitated deliberations of vast number of milk generating farmers, researchers, organizers, NGO’s and industry in accomplishing independence in milk handling.


Dairy industry is of urgent vitality to India. The nation is the world biggest milk maker, representing more than 13% of world’s aggregate milk creation. It is the world’s biggest buyer of dairy items, expending very nearly 100% of its own milk preparation. Dairy items are a real wellspring of shabby and nutritious nourishment to a huge number of individuals in India. Furthermore the main adequate wellspring of creature protein for huge veggie lover portion of Indian populace, especially around the landless, small farmers and ladies.


Dairying has been recognized as one of the exercises pointed at allaying the neediness and unemployment particularly in the provincial ranges in the sprinkle bolstered and dry season inclined areas. In India, around three-fourth of the populace live in provincial territories and about 38% of them are poor. Thus effects of Dairy Industry might be categorized into having:



  • • Social raise
  • • Economic development
  • • Impact on foundation
  • • Impact on enhanced nourishment support security

These effects can be gathered from the following existing benefits of Dairy Farming:



  • • Not dependent on rainfall
  • • Causes less pollution and is eco-friendly
  • • Skilled labor is not a constraint as its requirement is relatively less.
  • • Active Dairy product market
  • • Raw materials need not be stocked in huge quantities
  • • Shifting to a new location is relatively easier in case of any unfortunate event
  • • Less requirement of energy. Maximum energy can be obtained from Biogas plant fed with cow dung for daily requirements of the farms
  • • Fixed Selling rate of milk
  • • Assurance of regular income
  • • No control on the sale prices by the middlemen
  • • Increasing Demand for Milk

PLANNING A DAIRY FARM


To plan and start a new dairy farm, the following points must be considered:



  • a. Nourish Resources Available

    • • Pasture touching area
    • • Green grain accessible and deficiencies in supply
    • • Availability of dry grain
    • • Concentrate, sort and expense, quality, brand
    • • Mineral blender

  • b. Classifications of Holdings

    • • Land less horticultural specialists, minor, little, medium and substantial farmers.
    • • Extent of usage of Natural Resources like land, human (work), capital and business endeavor.

  • c. Existing Infrastructure offices

    • • Veterinary doctor’s facilities, dispensaries, and provincial veterinary dispensaries (veterinary essential wellbeing focuses)
    • • Semen banks – semen gathering, assessment and solidifying, offices with satisfactory offices for putting away, of solidified semen.
    • • Cooperatives – essential/ optional social orders for taking care of the farmers’ requests and procurement of inputs comprehensive of delicate term, fleeting and medium term credits.
    • • Extension administrations – Animal cultivation and dairying.
    • • Chilling focuses – milk gathering and chilling units and transportation to preparing units.
    • • Feed plants – assembling of intensified food.
    • • Manpower accessibility.

  • d. Generation of Milk Products and their Demands and Supply

    • • Production of milk for every year for every animal and for every one thousand person.
    • • Facilities for storage of milk
    • • Actual provincial interest (utilization)

Initial Preparations: Visit to a Dairy Farm


While visiting a dairy farm, the dairy farmer should



  • • Focus on the aims and objectives of the farm mainly on breeding and production
  • • Visit to commercially based dairy farms for a discussion with experienced farm owners.
  • • Study feed and fodder’s market and its difficulties
  • • Choose experienced and reliable persons as a team for the specific jobs.
  • • Observe animals on sale in the market
  • • Study the patterns on rearing of dairy animals and manufacturing of milk as mentioned by National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal (Haryana)

DAIRY FARM: KIRPA RAM DAIRY INDUSTRY, UTTAR PRADESH


The dairy owns about 150 cows. All the cows are milked at an average of 5 minutes. Hormones are injected into them at regular intervals to increase their milk yields.


On asking the contact person, Mr. Amit Gupta, we came to know that the life expectancy of cows is about 15 years. The milk production drops to a large extent after 10 years, after which these cows are slaughtered for meat. The cows give birth to calves after nine months which are shipped to the veal industry if it is a male calf as it is of no use to the dairy industry. The cows are inseminated at regular intervals for proper milk yield.


Things that are kept in mind:



  • • Choosing the proper breed of animals for maximum productivity
  • • Construction of proper Cattle Sheds
  • • Proper nutrition as far as feeding is concerned and other management practices
  • • Adequate health Management practices for prevention of diseases in the farm
  • • Generation of profits by production of milk and its byproducts etc.
  • • Enhancement of productivity which will help farmers get more milk.

Feeding Practices (Vetbharathi, 2011)


Dairy animals need to be fed for proper maintenance of their body and production of milk. Extra feeding is required in case of pregnancy for good health of the calf.



  • • Mineral mixtures and fresh drinking water must be fed to the animals of all age groups and health conditions
  • • Fodder, concentrates (mixture of grains and legumes seeds/urea)
  • • The dry matter content in various foods are as follows:

    • a. Concentrates: 70%
    • b. Green Fresh fodder: 10%
    • c. Green dried in air / sun: 20%
    • d. Dry fodder / crop residues: 85%

  • • Dry matter requirement should be made with 1/3rd of green fodder 1/3rd from concentrates and 1/3rd from dry fodder.
  • • Homemade concentrates can be used: mainly leguminous seeds and food grains mixed in the proportion of 40: 60 along with oil cakes and bran in small quantity. The protein content in leguminous seeds is 20-24%, food grains is 8 – 12% and oil cakes is 24%
  • • To provide energy to the animals, food grains can be fed which are the best source of proteins and fats.
  • • Mineral mixtures are essential especially in growing and pregnant animals.

STAGES OF DAIRY FARMING (KIRPA RAM DAIRY INDUSTRY, UTTAR PRADESH)


Step 1: Rearing


Dairy cows ordinarily use their days consuming, resting, and ruminating or biting their cud. They also meander around and consume new grass (i.e. brushing). In different farms, they are bolstered grain, feed, or silage (saved search) and stay throughout the day around other people known as restricted cattle nourishing operations (Cafos), some of which house many creatures.


Farmers also use development hormones and anti-infection agents throughout the raising methodology to falsely expand a cow’s milk preparation and to decline the spread of irresistible ailments around their cows.


Step 2: Harvesting


Cows are ordinarily milked at any rate twice a day. Milking time takes about five minutes for every dairy animals relying upon the kind of machine and the measure of milk the cow is transforming. Milking machines mirror the movement of a junior calf by making a throbbing vacuum around the teat, which causes the milk to be discharged from the udder.


Step 3: Storing


Milk stockpiling vats or storehouses are refrigerated and come in different shapes and sizes. Milk is normally put away on the farm at 39 degrees Fahrenheit, or colder, for close to 48 hours. Vats and storehouses are fomented to verify that the whole volume stays icy and that the milk fat does not separate from the milk. After milk has been gathered, stockpiling vats and stainless steel funnels are completely cleaned before the agriculturist milks once more.


Step 4: Transportation


Milk is gathered from the farm each 24 or 48 hours. The tankers that are utilized have extraordinary stainless steel bodies which are vigorously protected to keep the milk cool throughout transportation to the transforming manufacturing plant. Milk tanker drivers are licensed milk graders, qualified to assess the milk before gathering. Tanker drivers grade and if essential reject milk focused around temperature, sight, and odor. An agent example is gathered from each one farm pickup preceding being pumped onto the tanker. After accumulation, milk is transported to production line destinations and put away in refrigerated storehouses before preparing.


Step 5: Lab Testing


Samples of milk are taken from homestead vats before gathering and from the mass. Tests from the mass milk tanker are tried for anti-toxins and temperature before the milk enters the manufacturing plant transforming zone. Farm milk specimens are tried for milk fat, protein, mass milk cell check and microscopic organism number. On the off chance that milk does not meet quality principles it is rejected. Most farmers are paid on the quality and piece of their milk.


Step 6: Processing


Whole milk, once approved for use, is pumped into storage silos where it undergoes pasteurization, homogenization, separation and further processing.



  • • Pasteurization Involves heating every particle of milk to a specific temperature for a specified period of time and cooling it again without allowing recontamination.
  • Separation Includes turning milk through an axis to divide the cream from the milk. After separation, the cream and remaining milk are remixed to give the craved fat substance to the distinctive sorts of milk being prepared.

For “entire milk,” the cream is reintroduced until the fat substance achieves 3.25%. For “low fat drain,” the fat substance is 1%. For “skim milk” (some of the time called nonfat milk) the fat substance is .05%.


Step 7: Packaging


Now the milk is ready to be bundled for conveyance to the stores. The milk ventures out through funnels to the programmed bundling machines that fills and seals the milk into paper containers or plastic containers. As the holders travel through the sequential construction system, a date is printed on each of them to show to what extent the milk will stay new.


RECOMMENDATIONS


To have safe, good quality milk from healthy animals, sustainable management practices can be adopted that are good for the animals from a social and economic perspective. Dairy farmers can implement the following measures to achieve the desired outcome:



  • Animal Health: Healthy Animals that produce milk can be taken care of with effective health care programs.
  • Milking Hygiene: Prerequisites to keep milk in hygienic conditions are proper harvesting and storing conditions. Equipment that can be used to harvest and store milk should be suitable and well maintained.
  • Nutrition (Feed and Water): Products of suitable quality should be used to feed the animals need to be fed and watered.
  • Animal Welfare: Animals should be kept free from thirst, malnutrition, discomfort, injuries, disease, pain and fear.
  • Environment: Surroundings, which can balance the local environment around the farm, should be adopted for better milk production.
  • Socio-Economic Management: Dairy farming can help by benefitting the farmers and other communities in both economic and social sector. These practices can also help to manage the social and economic risks to the enterprise.

LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS


How to Improve Dairy Farming Practices in Rural India


There is wide variety in (a) agro-climatic condition, (b) biodiversity and environment (c) socio budgetary and social foundation of individuals, (d) sorts/types of dairy cows raised. It is therefore important to get ready for dairy advancement particular to every micro level, viz., a piece, a town, a taluk and a locale. This arrangement enhances ideal use of nearby assets and guarantees better suitability of the projects and higher expense profits degree. Before defining and proposing dairy improvement programs, it is important to think about natural effect (water bodies’ contamination, over munching of meadows, debasement of watersheds, deforestation). These days, saving the environment and nature is truly pushed by the private gatherings and multinational organizations while subsidizing the creature cultivation ventures. However for the healthy growth of dairy industry, the following measures are needed:



  • • Embrace the accompanying tips for proficient recognizable proof and plan of creature cultivation and veterinary ventures.
  • • Recognizing such innovations, which request less capital, less time and least operations.
  • • Explore the conceivable outcomes of giving advances at the most minimal investment rates with subsidies for dairy advancement exercises.
  • • Gradual change of existing indigenous types of animals.
  • • Gradual evacuation of futile stock and supplanting with high yielding predominant quality creatures.
  • • Gradual control in farming practice for enhancing creature benefit and reception of biotechnological mediations in food and grain, propagation and development perspectives.
  • • Support from Government in enhancing the supply of inputs and administration to dairy farmers/ beneficiaries at their doorsteps with least cost.
  • • Contribution from different nongovernmental organizations/association to straightforwardness the issues of farmers in acquaintanceship with the legislative offices.
  • • Create suitable agriculturist’s cooperatives social orders/ leagues like, milk makers helpful social orders at town and locale levels, alliances, sheets and enterprises.
  • • Synchronous advancement of cool chain stockpiling and advertising offices are required, particularly for milk and milk items.
  • • Activation of different information administrations from various agencies.

IMPACT OF DAIRY FARMING ON RURAL INDIA


Social Impact


Since social participation interests all, absence of separation, existing doctrine, sexual orientation and budgetary status has succeeded in breaking down hindrances for those with milch creatures. Surprisingly new mindfulness has been produced and seen around the makers.


Resolving Social Inequity


Social disgrace still exists in numerous parts of country India. At all the collection centers, morning and night, many grown-ups and also the youngsters of milk makers having a place with all positions come and stand in queue to deliver their milk produce, creating a propensity of discipline. The mix of different ethnic and social gatherings twice a day for a typical reason and to their shared change has brought about lessening social inequity.


Superstitions


There were overall convictions in the greater part of the provincial ranges that drain is a sacred ware and is not intended to be sold and that certain infectious infection, for example, rudderpost ought not to be dealt with on the grounds that they are a condemnation of God. Normal pay and veterinary help through cooperatives have helped parts leave such superstitions behind.


Health Care


The benefit of gathering the milk from parts puts a commitment on the cooperatives to give inputs to build the milk handling. If required, the unions work with veterinary administrations at their doorstep to deal with dairy cattle wellbeing. Presentation to different advanced innovations and their requisitions by the veterinarians to treat their family members as well.


Impact on Infrastructure


Taking an interest farmers have gotten mindful of their obligation to the group. Consistently they liberally help a part of their agreeable benefit towards the general advancement of the town, for example,



  • • Improving the town approach way condition
  • • Providing offices to youth through making town libraries
  • • Contributing to instructive organizations and town essential wellbeing focuses
  • • Providing and redesigning regular information by putting TV sets in DCSs
  • • Providing a phone office to parts for better and quick correspondences
  • • Contributing to making the drinking water supply framework in the town.
  • • Cooperative dairying has in this manner demonstrated a noteworthy socio-investment sway in rural improvement.

Impact on Improved Food Aid and Nutrition


A few studies have uncovered that India is better-off now in the region of preparation of sustenance grains, then in the recent past. The genuine issue however, is that even with extra grain accessibility, lack of healthy sustenance continues on the grounds that those in genuine need have lacking acquiring power. The milk producers’ associations (Mpos) do make a commitment towards producing extra pay for these poor gatherings and help manufacture an advantageous relationship between animal and crop husbandry; wage created from one makes interest for the yield of the other, as such, yield of one gets sustain for the other. The essential impacts of Mpos are to give more terrific salary to the partaking families. As every capita use expands, so does the use on sustenance items. As such, there is a proportionate expand in the utilization of sustenance as using force increments. Subsequently, extra salary gave by Mpos to families beneath the destitution line really helps them build their nourishment consumption.


Mpos gave salary at standard interims; normally every day, yet once in a while additionally when a week. Given the low buying force of provincial family units, things of crucial utilization not processed by the families themselves, for example, salt, sugar, vegetable oils, flavors, lentils and vegetables, must be acquired every day. The procurement of extra money salary day by day or week by week undoubtedly helps the families expand


Income from Dairy Farming


The ultimate goal of dairy farming is generating income and employment. Dairy farming has been able to reduce rural poverty as it ensures constant income and provides security to the family members. Selling of milk, dung, stock, milk products are the various sources of income from dairy farming.


Farmers get around 50% of the income from dairying and livestock. The price of buffalo milk is more than cow milk; hence the level of milk yield from buffalo’s milk will be greater than the yield from cow’s milk. Apart from this, the maintenance cost of crossbred cows is more than that for buffalos.


THREE-TIER AMUL MODEL: A BENCHMARK


The highly successful AMUL (Anand Milk Union Limited) program sets the yardstick for almost all dairy organizations in the country. It is a three-tier structure at the town level, district level and the state level. A Dairy Helpful Society at the town level is associated with a Milk Union at the District level which then is further merged into a Milk Federation at the State level. This three-level structure makes the collection, treatment and delivery of dairy products easier, thereby making the process much more systematic. The milk collection is done at the Village Dairy Society, Milk Procurement & Processing at the District Milk Union and Milk & Milk Products Marketing at the State Milk Federation. This helps in dispensing with inward rivalry as well as guaranteeing that economies of scale are accomplished. As the above structure was initially developed by AMUL in Gujarat and from that point imitated everywhere throughout the nation under the Operation Flood Program, it is known as the ‘Amul Model’ or ‘Anand Pattern’ of Dairy Cooperatives.


Roles and Responsibilities of Village Dairy Cooperative Society, District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union and State Cooperative Milk Federation


Structurally, the AMUL model comprises of collection, treatment and packaging of the dairy products. The segment wise responsibilities for each of these is given below:


Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS)


The milk makers of a town, having surplus milk after own utilization, come together and structure a Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS). The Village Dairy cooperative is the essential pop culture under the three-level structure. It has participation of milk makers of the town and is legislated by a selected Management Committee. This committee comprises of 9 to 12 representatives of the milk union focused around the rule of one part, one vote. The town public opinion further selects a Secretary (a paid representative and part secretary of the Management Committee) for administration of the normal capacities. It additionally utilizes different individuals for supporting the Secretary in achieving his/ her every day obligations. The VDCS is responsible for:



  • • Collection of surplus milk from the milk makers of the town & installment taking into account quality & amount
  • • Providing help administrations to the parts like Veterinary First Aid, Artificial Insemination administrations, steers nourish deals, mineral mixture deals, grub & feed seed deals, leading preparing on Animal Husbandry & Dairying, and so forth.
  • • Selling fluid milk for nearby buyers of the town
  • • Supplying milk to the District Milk Union Accordingly, the VDCS in a free element oversaw provincially by the milk makers and aided by the District Milk Union.

District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union (Milk Union)


The Village Societies of a District (going from 75 to 1653 for every Milk Union in Gujarat) having surplus drain after nearby deals meet up and structure a District Milk Union. The Milk Union is the second level under the three-level structure. It has enrollment of Village Dairy Societies of the District and is legislated by a Board of Directors comprising 9 to 18 chose agents of the Village Societies. The Milk Union further selects an expert Managing Director (paid worker and part secretary of the Board) for administration of the regular capacities. It additionally utilizes different individuals for aiding the Overseeing Director in finishing his/ her every day obligations. The principle responsibilities of the Milk Union are:



  • • Procurement of milk from the Village Dairy Societies of the District
  • • Arranging transportation of crude milk from the VDCS to the Milk Union.
  • • Providing information administrations to the makers like Veterinary Care, Artificial Insemination administrations, steers encourage deals, mineral mixture deals, grub & feed seed deals, and so on.
  • • Conducting preparing on Cooperative Development, Animal Husbandry & Dairying for milk makers and leading specific aptitude advancement & Administration Development preparing for VDCS staff & Management Committee parts.
  • • Providing administration backing to the VDCS alongside normal supervision of its exercises.

State Cooperative Milk Federation (SCMF)


The Milk Unions of a State are unified into a State Cooperative Milk Federation. The federation is the summit level under the three-level structure. It has participation of all the helpful Milk Unions of the State and is administered by a Board of Directors comprising of one chose illustrative of each one Milk Union. The State Federation further designates an Overseeing Director (paid representative and part secretary of the Board) for administration of the normal capacities. It likewise utilizes different individuals for helping the Managing Executive in achieving his day by day obligations. The fundamental capacities of the Federation are as takes after:



  • • Marketing of milk & milk items transformed/ produced by Milk Unions.
  • • Establish dispersion system for promoting of milk & milk items.
  • • Arranging transportation of milk & milk items from the Milk Unions to the market.
  • • Creating & keeping up a brand for promoting of milk & milk items (brand building).
  • • Providing help administrations to the Milk Unions & parts like Technical Inputs, administration help & consultative administrations.
  • • Pooling surplus milk from the Milk Unions and supplying

CONCLUSION


Apart from cooperatives, the dairy segment is still described by little scale, scattered and chaotic milch creature holders; low gainfulness; lacking and improper creature nourishing and human services; absence of guaranteed year-round gainful maker costs for milk; insufficient fundamental framework for procurement of generation inputs what’s more administrations; deficient essential framework for obtainment, transportation, handling and advertising of milk and absence of expert administration. In spite of every last one of issues it confronts, the dairy division holds high guarantees as a reliable wellspring of business for the dominant part of the country poor in India. The AMUL model of little scale dairy generation and advertising, as it has developed and been refined in the course of the last 50 years, likewise holds high assurances for smallholder dairy improvement in India. Liberalization of world exchange dairy items under the new exchange administration of the WTO postures new difficulties and has opened up new fare open doors for the dairy business in India. It necessities to upgrade focused monetary preference in dairy items regarding both quality, expense and its validity in global markets. Milk yield needs to build in order to decline the for every liter expense of handling, quality needs to be upgraded with the selection of the most recent transforming and bundling engineering will expand fare of dairy items.


This research was previously published in Promoting Socio-Economic Development through Business Integration edited by Shalini Kalia, Bhavna Bhalla, Lipi Das, and Neeraj Awasthy, pages 149-163, copyright year 2015 by Business Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global).


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COM. M. (n.d.). Guide to good dairy farming practice. Retrieved September 10, 2014 from www.milkproduction.com/Library/Editorial-articles/Guide-to-good-dairy-farming-practice/


Department of Animal Husbandry. Dairying & Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Gol. (1995-2015). Milk Production in India. Retrieved October 12,2014 from www.nddb.org/English/Statistics/Pages/Milk-Production.aspx


Feeds and Feeding Practices in Dairy Animals. (n.d.). Thread: Feeds and Feeding Practices in Dairy Animals. Retrieved September 21, 2014 from www.agricultureinformation.com/forums/consultancy-services/60410-feeds-feeding-practices-dairy-animals.html


Goswami, B. (2007). Can Indian Dairy Cooperatives Survive in the New Economic Order? Session on Supply Management in Support of Rural Livelihoods under the WTO in Forum for Biotechnology & Food Security. Retrieved October 10,2014 from www.wto.org/english/forums_e/public_forum2007_e/session11_goswami_e.pdf


National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development. (n.d.). Nationwide Study on SGSY, NIRD, 2005. Opportunities and Challenges in the Indian Dairy Industry. Retrieved December 8, 2014 from www.nabard.org/fileupload/DataBank/…/issue9td-6.pdf


Vet Helpline India (P) Ltd. (n.d.). Starting a Dairy Farm in India. Retrieved December 8, 2014 from www.vethelplineindia.co.in/starting-a-dairy-farm-india/


ADDITIONAL READING


Boden, E. (Ed.). (1998). Black’s Veterinary Dictionary . London: A & C Black.


India Report, A. S. S. O. C. H. A. M. (2012). Rural development in India: State level experiences. The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India, New Delhi. Available: www.assocham.org/arb/general/Rural_Development_in_India_state_level_Exp-2012.pdf


Indian Council of Agricultural Research. (1962). Handbook of animal husbandry. Retrieved from icar.org.in/en/node/6639


Kumbhakar, S. C., Biswas, B., & Bailey, D. (1989). A Study of Economic Efficiency of Utah Dairy Farmers: A System Approach. The Review of Economics and Statistics , 71(4), 595–604. doi:10.2307/1928101


Lund, V., & Algers, B. (2002). Research on animal health and welfare in organic farming. Livestock Production Science, 80(2003), 55-68.


Reinhard, S., Lovell, C. A. K., & Thijssen, G. (1999). Econometric estimation of technical and environmental efficiency: An application to Dutch dairy farms. American Journal of Agricultural Economics , 81(1), 44–60. doi:10.2307/1244449


Sastry, N. S. R., & Thomas, C. K. (1991). Livestock Management . Delhi: Kalyani Publishers.


Singh, K., & Pundir, R.S. (August 2000). Co-operatives and Rural Development in India. Anand: Institute of Rural Management.


Sundaresan, D. (1975). Principles of livestock breeding . New Delhi: Vikas.


Verma, M. P. (1994). Drugs and animal diseases . KAS Publishers.


KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS


Dairy Farming: A form of agriculture for production of milk for commercial purposes.


Farming Practices: The methodologies practiced in dairy farming.


Milk: Milk is a white liquid; India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of milk, it has various health benefits.


Operation Flood: White Revolution under the title Operation Flood (OF) Program started in 1970.


Rural Development: The process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in villages in India.



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Jan 16, 2020 | Posted by in GENERAL | Comments Off on Role of Dairy Farming in Rural Development
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