Chapter 163 Respiratory Infections
The respiratory system is a common portal of entry for infectious agents of all varieties, with many of these infectious agents have been identified as respiratory pathogens (Table 163-1). The purpose of this chapter is to emphasize clinical aspects of common respiratory infections in dogs and cats. For details concerning specific infectious diseases, the reader is referred to Chapter 11 for respiratory virus and chlamydia infections of the cat, Chapter 12 for bordetellosis and viral tracheobronchitis of the dog, Chapter 13 for canine distemper, Chapter 20 for the systemic mycoses, and Chapter 21 for toxoplasmosis. Diagnostic procedures relevant for respiratory infections are summarized in Table 163-2 and are discussed in Chapters 158 and 159. Management of noninfective bronchopulmonary diseases and of chronic bronchitis in the dog and cat are described in Chapter 162. Management of pleural infections is described in Chapter 164.
Table 163-2 DIAGNOSIS OF RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS
Infections of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are common, and clinical signs may also involve the nasopharynx. Acute rhinitis is frequently caused by viral and bacterial pathogens that directly invade the nasal mucosa. Chronic rhinitis often can be traced to another predisposing problem such as immunosuppression, foreign body, or tumor. Because the nasal cavity is not sterile, standard culture and sensitivity tests are of little value in diagnosis and management of these diseases.