Chapter 5 Birds

TABLE 5-1 Antimicrobial Agents Used in Birds.a

Agent Dosage Species/Comments
Amikacin Least nephrotoxic of the aminoglycosides;165 maintain hydration during use5
  7 mg/kg IV q24h344 Emus/PD; mean serum levels declined below a target trough of 4 μg/mL at 24 hr
  7.6 mg/kg IM q8h383 Ostriches/PD; causes myositis; painful injection
  10 mg/kg IM q12h577 Cranes
  10 mg/kg SC, IM q8h × 14 days426 Ring-necked pheasants/PD; renal toxicosis appeared at 11 days; uric acid levels abnormal up to 7 days after cessation
  10-15 mg/kg IM q24h363 Raptors
  10-15 mg/kg IM q12h481 Amazon parrots, cockatiels, cockatoos/PD
  10-15 mg/kg IM, IV q8-12h702,812 Most species, including psittacines
  10-20 mg/kg IM, IV q8-12h303 African grey parrots/PD
  15 mg/kg IM q12h724 Blue-fronted Amazon parrots/PD
  15 mg/kg IV q8h724 Blue-fronted Amazon parrots/PD
  15-20 mg/kg/day divided q8-24h73 Red-tailed hawks/PD; use low end of dose range for smaller hawks
  15-20 mg/kg SC, IM, IV q8-12h200 Passerines, pigeons/5 days maximum693
  15-20 mg/kg IM q8-12h643 Cockatiels/PD
  15-30 mg/kg IM q12-24h200,824 Most species, including passerines/use in combination with other agents for Mycobacterium; see Table 5-45
  20 mg/kg IM q12h1 Ostriches (chicks)/administer concurrent to piperacillin (100 mg/kg q12h)
  20 mg/kg IM q8h214 Chickens/PD
  528 mg/L drinking water810 Ratites/egg dip
  3 g/40 packet bone cement814 PMMA bead formation (1:14 ratio); same dose for all aminoglycoside beads
Amoxicillin/clavulanate (Clavamox, Pfizer) β-lactamase inhibitor; use with allopurinol is contraindicated5
7-14 mg/kg IM q24h102 Ostriches
  10-15 mg/kg PO q12h810 Ratites
  60-120 mg/kg IM q8-12h201 Collared doves/PD
  125 mg/kg PO q12h259,609 Most species, including pigeons, psittacines, raptors
125 mg/kg PO q6h147 Psittacines
  125 mg/kg PO q8h586 Blue-fronted Amazon parrots/PD
  125-250 mg/kg PO q8-12h201 Collared doves/PD
  500 mg/L drinking water872 Chickens/PD
Amoxicillin sodium 50 mg/kg IM q12-24h199 Pigeons/PD; gram-positive bacteria
  100 mg/kg IM, IV q4-8h702 Bustards/PD; administer q4h IM or q8h IV to maintain blood levels >2 mg/mL
  150 mg/kg IM q8h696 Passerines, soft bills
  250 mg/kg IM q12-24h195,199 Pigeons/PD; gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
Amoxicillin trihydrate Broad-spectrum bactericidal penicillin antibiotic;5 minimal activity for common gram-negative infections of birds;702 because amoxicillin has a relatively low availability after oral administration, higher doses are needed in birds to achieve the same peak levels as in mammals204
  15-22 mg/kg PO q8h810 Ratites
  20 mg/kg PO q12-24h197 Pigeons/PD; mean half-life 66 min
  30 mg/kg IM q12h × 5 days102 Pigeons
  40-80 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days102 Pigeons
  55-110 mg/kg PO q12h320 Pigeons
  100 mg/kg PO q12-24h205 Pigeons/PD
  100 mg/kg PO q8h50 Most species, including raptors
  100-150 mg/kg PO q12h149 Raptors
  100-200 mg/kg PO, IM q4-8h205 Pigeons
  150 mg/kg SC, IM q24h × 5 days (administer q48h with long-acting preparation)702 Pigeons
  150 mg/kg PO, IV750 Pigeons/PD; Streptococcus bovis
  150-175 mg/kg PO q12h147,409 Passerines (towhees), psittacines
  150-175 mg/kg PO q4-8h696,812 Pigeons, psittacines
  65 mg/L drinking water810 Ratites
  200-400 mg/L drinking water312 Canaries/aviary use
  330 mg/L drinking water,63 provide on alternate days × 3 treatments119 Waterfowl
  500-800 mg/L drinking water320 Pigeons
  1500 mg/L drinking water × 5 days750 Pigeons/S. bovis
  1500-4500 mg/L drinking water147 Psittacines
  300-500 mg/kg soft feed312 Canaries/aviary use
  600 mg/kg soft feed147 Psittacines
Ampicillin sodium 50 mg/kg IM q6-8h218 Amazon parrots/PD; localized infections
  100 mg/kg IM q4h218 Amazon parrots/PD
  150 mg/kg q12-24h IM195,199 Pigeons/PD
  150 mg/kg IM q12-24h198 Passerines, soft bills
  150-200 mg/kg PO q8-12h218 Amazon parrots/PD; therapeutic levels not achieved in blue-naped Amazons at this dosage
  174 mg/kg PO q24h181 Pigeons/PD; Streptococcus bovis
  528 mg/L drinking water181 Pigeons/PD; S. bovis
Ampicillin trihydrate Broad-spectrum bactericidal penicillin antibiotic; minimal activity for common gram-negative infections of birds; poor gastrointestinal absorption; may be useful for treating sensitive gastrointestinal infections702
  4-7 mg/kg SC, IM q8h810 Ratites (excluding emus)
  11-15 mg/kg PO q8h810 Ratites
  15 mg/kg IM q12h100 Raptors/PD
  15-20 mg/kg SC, IM q12h100,384,511 Emus, cranes (PD)
  25 mg/kg PO q12-24h195,199 Pigeons/PD
  55-110 mg/kg IM q8-12h321 Poultry
  100 mg/kg PO q12-24h195,199 Pigeon/PD
  100 mg/kg IM q12h577 Cranes
  100 mg/kg IM q4h134,702,812 Most species, including psittacines
  100-200 mg/kg PO q6-8h702,812 Psittacines
  155 mg/kg IM q12-24h205 Pigeons/PD; amoxicillin preferred over ampicillin for IM use in pigeons
  170 mg/L drinking water102 Game birds
  1000 mg/L drinking water671 Galliformes/flock use
  1000-2000 mg/L drinking water312 Canaries/aviary use
  2000-3000 mg/kg soft feed312 Canaries/aviary use
Apramycin (Apralan, Elanco) Aminoglycoside; nephrotoxic; therapeutic levels not achieved in Japanese quail at 50 mg/kg IV;444 not available in the United States
  250-500 mg/L drinking water102 Gamebirds
  500 mg powder/L drinking water64,787 Psittacines, chickens/Pseudomonas
Arsanilic acid (sodium arsanilate or P-amino-benzenearsonic acid) (Pro-Gen, Vétoquinol) 100 mg/kg feed787 Poultry/do not use in ducks and geese
Azithromycin (Zithromax, Pfizer) Newer-generation macrolide indicated for intracellular infections including Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, Chlamydophila, and Cryptosporidium
  10-20 mg/kg PO q48h × 5 treatments117 Blue and gold macaws/PD; nonintracellular infections
  40 mg/kg PO q24h × 30 days117 Blue and gold macaws/PD; intracellular infections (i.e., Chlamydophila)
  40 mg/kg PO q48h × 21 days305 Cockatiels/PD; Chlamydophila
  43-45 mg/kg PO q24h200,695 Most species including psittacines, passerines/intracellular infections including Mycobacterium; used with ethambutol and rifabutin (see Table 5-45)
  50-80 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days on, off 4 days, repeat up to 3 wk672 Most species/Mycoplasma; do not use if hepatic or renal disease; can mix with lactulose (stable refrigerated for 3-4 wk)
Bacitracin methylene disalicylate (Solutracin 200, A.L. Laboratories; BMD Soluble, Alpharma) 50-400 mg/L drinking water384,810 Ratites/Clostridium perfringens; prepare daily
220 mg/L119 Quail/Clostridium perfringens
55-220 mg/kg feed511 Quail
  100-500 mg/kg feed102 Ostriches <3 mo of age
Carbenicillin (Geocillin, Roerig; Pyopen, SmithKline Beechum) Extended-spectrum penicillin effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas, Proteus702
11-15 mg/kg IV q8h810 Ratites
  100 mg/kg PO q12h518 Most species
  100 mg/kg IM q8h47 Most species
  100 mg/kg IT q24h134 Most species/Pseudomonas respiratory infections
  100-200 mg/kg IM, IV q6-12h113,200,323,672,702,812 Most species, including psittacines, passerines, soft bills, pigeons, cranes, raptors
  250 mg/kg IM q12h653 Raptors
  1058 mg/L drinking water518 Most species
Cefadroxil First-generation cephalosporin
  20 mg/kg PO q12h841 Ratites
  100 mg/kg PO q12h × 7 days320,692 Most psittacines, pigeons/14-21 day therapy may be indicated for severe or deep pyodermas
Cefazolin First-generation cephalosporin
  22-110 mg/kg IM q8-12h321 Poultry
  25-30 mg/kg IM, IV q8h111 Cranes
  25-50 mg/kg IM, IV q12h672 Most species
  50-75 mg/kg IM q12h692 Most species
  50-100 mg/kg PO, IM q12h622 Raptors
Cefotaxime (Claforan, Hoechst-Roussel) Third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum activity for many gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens;702 penetrates cerebrospinal fluid5
  25 mg/kg IM q8h813 Ratites/young birds
  50-100 mg/kg IM q8-12h577 Cranes
  75-100 mg/kg IM q12h363 Raptors
  75-100 mg/kg IM, IV q4-8h50,200,702,812 Most species, including soft bills, psittacines, passerines
  100 mg/kg IM q8-12h320 Pigeons
Cefovecin (Convenia, Pfizer) 10 mg/kg SC, IM, IV q1h718,804 Pigeons, chickens/PD; not recommended for use in birds due to short ½ life; cannot be used q14d as in dogs and cats
Cefoxitin Second-generation cephalosporin with a wide range of activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
  50-75 mg/kg IM, IV q6-8h200,813 Most species, including soft bills
  50-100 mg/kg IM, IV q6-12h672,812 Psittacines
Cefquinome 5 mg/kg IM q24h865 Ducks/broad-spectrum cephalosporin; no effect PO
Ceftazidime Broad-spectrum third-generation cephalosporin; penetrates central nervous system5
  50-100 mg/kg IM, IV q4-8h244,696 Most species
Ceftiofur (Naxcel, Pfizer) Broad-spectrum third-generation cephalosporin with activity against Pasteurella, E. coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Salmonella5
  0.16 mg/chick SC q24h796 Chickens (chicks)/PD; treatment of early mortality associated with E. coli
  0.17-0.5 mg/poult SC q24h796 Turkeys
  2-4 mg/kg SC q24h128 Ducks
  2.8-5.8 mg/kg SC q24h796 Turkeys (poults)/PD; treatment of early mortality associated with E. coli
  10 mg/kg IM q8-12h796 Orange-winged Amazon parrots/PD
  10 mg/kg IM q4h796 Cockatiels/PD; higher doses may be required for resistant infections
  10 mg/kg IM q72hb Guineafowl/PD
  10-20 mg/kg IM q12h1,841 Ratites
  50 mg/kg IM q12h1 Ostrich chicks
  50-100 mg/kg q4-8h200,702,812 Most species, including psittacines and passerines
Ceftriaxone Third-generation cephalosporin; effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including some activity against Pseudomonas702
  75-100 mg/kg IM q4-8h239,702,812 Most species
  100 mg/kg IM q4h405 Chickens/PD
Cephalexin First-generation cephalosporin; active against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli and Proteus, but not Pseudomonas; useful for Staphylococcus dermatitis5
  15-22 mg/kg PO q8h810 Ratites (excluding emus)
  35-50 mg/kg PO, IM q6-8h99,106,363,577 Pigeons, emus, cranes, raptors, psittacines >500 g/dose psittacines q6h
  35-50 mg/kg IM q2-3h99,147 Quail, ducks (PD), psittacines <500 g
  40-100 mg/kg PO, IM q6-8h47,63,200,702,812 Most species, including raptors, psittacines, passerines
  50 mg/kg PO q6h × 3-5 days102,534 Raptors, pigeons
  55-110 mg/kg PO q12h321 Poultry/Mycoplasma, Haemophilus
  100 mg/kg PO q8-12h320 Pigeons/14-21 day therapy may be indicated for severe or deep pyodermas
  100 mg/kg PO q4-6h99 Pigeons, emus, cranes/PD
Cephalothin First-generation cephalosporin
  30-40 mg/kg IM, IV q6h810 Ratites (excluding emus)
  100 mg/kg IM q8-12h363 Raptors
  100 mg/kg IM, IV q6-8h134,810 Most species, including psittacines, ratites
  100 mg/kg IM q6h99 Pigeons, emus, cranes/PD
  100 mg/kg IM, IV q2-6h200 Passerines
  100 mg/kg IM q2-3h99 Quail, ducks/PD
Cephradine First-generation cephalosporin
  35-50 mg/kg PO q4-6h671 Most species/14-21 day therapy may be indicated for severe or deep pyodermas
  100 mg/kg PO q4-6h671 Pigeons, emus, cranes
Chloramphenicol palmitate (oral suspension) Not for use in food animals;332 wear gloves; bone marrow suppression (irreversible aplastic anemia in humans); potential nephrotoxicity; bacteriostatic activity;614 mainly excreted after biotransformation; because large differences in pharmacokinetics exist between birds and mammals, and even between avian species, extrapolation between species is ill-advised204
  25 mg/kg PO q8h × 5 days102 Pigeons
  30-50 mg/kg PO q6-8h702,811,812 Psittacines, including budgerigars
  35-50 mg/kg PO q8h × 3 days810 Ratites
  50 mg/kg PO q6-12h16,363,673 Raptors, galliformes (turkeys)
  50-100 mg/kg PO q6-12h45,200 Most species, including passerines
  250 mg/kg PO q6h320 Pigeons
  100-200 mg/L drinking water672 Canaries
Chloramphenicol succinate 22 mg/kg IM, IV q3h182 Ducks (PD), raptors
30 mg/kg IM q8h × 3-5 days259 Raptors
  35-50 mg/kg SC, IM, IV q8h × 3 days810 Ratites
  50 mg/kg IM q6h129 Macaws, conures (PD)
  50 mg/kg IM q8-12h200 Passerines
  50 mg/kg IM q24h129 Peafowl, eagles (PD)
  50 mg/kg IM, IV q6-12h129,200,702 Most species, including budgerigars, passerines, pigeons, raptors, chickens, turkeys, geese (PD),129 ducks
  50-80 mg/kg IM q12-24h200 Passerines
  60-100 mg/kg IM q8h323 Pigeons
  79 mg/kg IM q12h129 Turkeys/PD
  100 mg/kg SC q8h577 Cranes
  100 mg/kg IM q6h200 Passerines
  200 mg/kg IM q12h × 5 days372 Budgerigars/PD
Chlorhexidine 2.6-7.9 mL of 2% solution/L drinking water673,779 Most species/bacterial infection; topical application may be fatal to nun and parrot finches672
  7.9 mL/L water810 Ratites/egg disinfectant spray at 104-108°F (40-42°C)
Chlorine (Na hypochlorite) 5 mg/L drinking water692 Water disinfectant; 0.1 mL of 5.25% bleach/L approximates this concentration
Chlortetracycline (Aureomycin Soluble Powder, Cyanamid) Broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; flock treatment of Chlamydophila, although doxycycline is preferred;702 outdated tetracycline is nephrotoxic270
  6-10 mg/kg IM q24h341 Raptors
  15-20 mg/kg PO q8h810 Ratites
  40-50 mg/kg PO q8h (w/grit) or q12h (w/o grit) Pigeons/PD
  100 mg/kg PO q6h147 Psittacines
  250 mg/kg PO q24h341 Raptors
  40-120 mg/L drinking water102 Galliformes (game birds)
  130-400 mg/L drinking water320,702,808 Pigeons
  500 mg/L drinking water or nectar133,134 Most species/prepare fresh q8-12h
  1000-1500 mg/L drinking water147,197 Canaries, psittacines/prophylaxis against Chlamydophila
  5000 mg/L drinking water × 45 days147 Psittacines/Chlamydophila
  100 mg/kg feed808 Pigeons/Salmonella
  200-600 mg/kg feed102 Galliformes
  300-400 mg/kg feed119 Waterfowl/colibacillosis, Chlamydophila, Salmonella
  500 mg/kg feed199 Budgerigars/Chlamydophila
  1000 mg/kg feed63 Waterfowl
  1000-2000 mg/kg soft mixed feed × 45 days64,197,198 Most psittacines, canaries
  2500 mg/kg feed873 and 2500 mg/L drinking water Chickens, turkeys/PD; simultaneous medication of feed and water required to reach therapeutic level
  5000 mg/kg soft feed × 45 days147 Psittacines/Chlamydophila
  0.5% pellets × 30-45 days47,133,134,196 Small psittacines/reduce calcium content of diet to 0.7%
  1% pellets × 30-45 days196,242,252 Large psittacines/reduce calcium content of diet to 0.7%
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Bayer) Broad-spectrum quinolone; not approved for use in food-producing birds in the United States258
  2 mg/kg IV552 Chicks/no toxic effects observed
  3-6 mg/kg PO q12h810 Ratites
  5 mg/kg/day PO × 5 days282 Chickens/PD
  5-20 mg/kg PO q12h × 5-7 days693 Pigeons
  10 mg/kg PO q12h × 7 days2 Ostrich chicks
  10-20 mg/kg PO q12h215,363 Raptors, chickens
  15-20 mg/kg PO, IM q12h47,200,811,812 Most species, including psittacines, passerines
  20-40 mg/kg PO, IV q12h511,672 Most species, including psittacines, canaries, raptors
  50 mg/kg PO q12h370 Raptors/PD
  80 mg/kg PO q24h824 Most species/Mycobacterium; use in combination with other agents (see Table 5-45)
  250 mg/L drinking water × 5-10 days693 Pigeons
Clarithromycin (Biaxin, Abbott) Broad-spectrum new generation macrolide; frequently used in combination with other drugs for mycobacteriosis (see Table 5-45)
  10 mg/kg PO q24h559 Penguins
  60 mg/kg q24h452 Psittacines
  85 mg/kg PO q24h695 Most species/Mycobacterium; allometrically scaled
Clindamycin Lincosamide; indicated for bone, joint, and tendon sheath infections; may be used for up to 12 wk without ill effects;702 monitor kidney and liver with long-term use as well as for yeast overgrowth
  5.5 mg/kg PO q8h534 Ostriches
  12.5 mg/kg PO q12h313 Great horned owls/skin grafts; given in combination with enrofloxacin
  25 mg/kg PO q8h242 Psittacines, raptors
  50 mg/kg PO q8-12h244 Most species/7-10 day course recommended for raptors with osteomyelitis63
  100 mg/kg PO q24h × 3-5 days200,242,363,673,702,812 Most species, including psittacines, passerines, raptors, pigeons, quail/Clostridium
  100 mg/kg PO q12h609 × 7 days Psittacines
  150 mg/kg PO q24h302 Pigeons, raptors/osteomyelitis
  200 mg/L drinking water157 Pigeons
Clofazimine (Lamprene, Novartis) 1-5 mg/kg PO q24h × 3-12 mo63,64,702 Psittacines, raptors/Mycobacterium; use in combination with other agents (see Table 5-45)
  6 mg/kg PO q12h695,824 Most species/Mycobacterium; use in combination with other agents (see Table 5-45)
  6-12 mg/kg PO q24h200,452 Passerines/Mycobacterium; use in combination with other agents (see Table 5-45)
Cloxacillin Penicillin effective against many gram-positive organisms; recommended in the treatment of pododermatitis702
  100-200 mg/kg IM q24h534 Most species
  250 mg/kg PO q24h500 Most species
  250 mg/kg PO q12h × 7-10 days63 Raptors
Cycloserine (Seromycin, Lilly) 5 mg/kg PO q12-24h × 3-12 mo63,702 Raptors/Mycobacterium; use in combination with other agents (see Table 5-45)
Danofloxacin mesylate (A180, Pfizer) Fluoroquinolone; not approved for use in food-producing birds in the United States258
  5 mg/kg PO, IM, IV215,521,787 Hyacinth macaws, chickens (PD)/higher therapeutic efficacy of water medication for enrofloxacin compared to danofloxacin can be expected when given at 5 mg/kg422
  50 mg/L in drinking water × 3 days525,672,788 Chicken chicks/Mycoplasma
Doxycycline (Vibramycin, Pfizer) Drug of choice for Chlamydophila, Mycoplasma; products or foods containing Al, Ca, Mg, and Fe reduce or alter absorption although doxycycline has a relatively low affinity for calcium binding;206 outdated tetracycline is nephrotoxic;270 12.5-25 mg/kg PO q12-24h resulted in elevations in AST and serum bile acids as well as hepatocellular damage in lorikeets875
  2-3.5 mg/kg PO q12h810 Ratites
  7.5-8 mg/kg PO q12-24h195,672 Passerines, nectar feeders, pigeons/PD; administer without grit197
  8-25 mg/kg PO q12h119 Waterfowl
  10-20 mg/kg PO q24h × 3-5 days102 Pigeons
  25 mg/kg (w/grit) PO q12h878 Pigeons/PD
  25 mg/kg PO q12h397 Psittacines, raptors/some gram-negative bacterial infections and possibly Leucocytozoon
  25-50 mg/kg PO q12-24h198,242,363,811,812 Most species, including parrots (African grey parrots, Amazon parrots, cockatoos, macaws) and pigeons/may cause regurgitation; use low end of dose range for macaws and cockatoos
  35 mg/kg PO q24h × 21 days305 Cockatiels/PD; Chlamydophila
  40 mg/kg PO q24h181 Pigeons/PD; Streptococcus bovis
  50 mg/kg PO q12h63 Waterfowl
  100 mg/L drinking water221 Chickens/PD
  130 mg/L drinking water147 Psittacines
  200 mg/L drinking water222 Pigeons
  250 mg/L drinking water197 Canaries
  265-525 mg/L drinking water321 Poultry/Mycoplasma, Haemophilus; can use in combination with tylosin
  280 mg/L drinking water626 Cockatiels/see Table 5-41 for recipe
  400 mg/L drinking water225 Cockatiels/PD; spiral bacteria
  500 mg/L drinking water147,181 Psittacines, pigeons/PD; S. bovis
  500 mg/L drinking water591 Fruit doves/PD; erratic drug concentrations (while most birds reached or exceeded therapeutic drug levels, some birds did not)
  800 mg/L drinking water (mix the contents of 16 x 100 mg capsules with 2 L water; make fresh daily)249 African grey parrots, Goffin’s cockatoos/PD; protect solution from exposure to light
  250-300 mg/kg seed63,241 Waterfowl, budgerigars (PD)
  500 mg/kg wet weight seeds626 Cockatiels/PD; see Table 5-41 for recipe
  1000 mg/kg feed197,198,630 Large psittacines on dehulled seed (PD), macaws on corn (PD), canaries, large psittacines on soft feed (10 mg/mL syrup mixed into 29% kidney beans, 29% canned corn, 29% cooked rice, 13% dry oatmeal cereal)
Doxycycline (Vibravenös, Pfizer) Not available in the United States without written permission by Food and Drug Administration
  25-50 mg/kg IM q5-7d × 5-7 treatments696,811 Psittacines
  60-100 mg/kg SC, IM q5-7d197 Psittacines, pigeons/PD
  75 mg/kg IM q7d × 4-6 wk50,63 Macaws, waterfowl
  75-100 mg/kg IM q5-7d × 4-6 wk50,696,811 Psittacines, including macaws, budgerigars
  100 mg/kg SC, IM q5-7d × 7 doses300 Houbara bustards/PD; Chlamydophila
Doxycycline (Pharmacist-compounded micronized doxycycline hyclate) 75-100 mg/kg IM q7d696 Cockatoos/anecdotal reports of sudden death with compounded product; inadequate drug levels achieved in cockatiels at 100 mg/kg IM q10d;626 adequate drug levels achieved with 100 mg/kg given IM in cockatoos, Amazon parrots and SC in African grey parrots, but severe soft tissue reactions seen246
Doxycycline hyclate (Vibramycin injection, Pfizer) Cardiovascular collapse associated with the propylene glycol carrier can occur after rapid IV injection270
  25-50 mg/kg slow bolus IV q24h × 3 days696 Psittacines
  75-100 mg/kg SC, IM q5-7d195 Pigeons/PD
Doxycycline (Doxirobe gel, Pharmacia) Topical761 Most species/apply to beak or pododermatitis lesions; use in conjuction with debridement; antibiotic is released for 28 days
Enrofloxacin (Baytril, Bayer) Broad-spectrum quinolone;258 compounds containing Ca, Al, Fe, Mg, Zn interfere with absorption
    Administration may be associated with emesis;702 given PO, the IM formulation produces therapeutic plasma concentration;363 IM formulation is extremely alkaline (painful) and should not be given repeatedly; best to avoid IV use in birds; fluoroquinolones may be used in PMMA beads with success211
    Joint deformities reported in squab chondrocytes with 200-800 mg/L drinking water;432 however enrofloxacin has been commonly used at the recommended dosages without reports of adverse effects;250,672 no detected effect on cartilage in day-old chicks606
    Administration of the total daily dose to chickens over 2-4 hr (pulse dosing) has been recommended by some765
  1.5-2.5 mg/kg PO, SC q12h810 Ratites
  2.2 mg/kg IV q12h345 Emus/PD
  5 mg/kg SC, IM q12h811 Cockatiels
  5 mg/kg PO, IM q12-24h811 African grey parrots
  5 mg/kg IM q12h × 2 days810 Ratites
  5 mg/kg/day PO × 5 days282 Chickens/PD; accumulates in eggs
  5-10 mg/kg SC, IM q24h197,199 African grey parrots
  5-10 mg/kg PO q8h Passerines, pigeons (PD)
  5-15 mg/kg PO, SC, IM q12h323,363,696,702,812 Raptors, psittacines, pigeons/drug of choice for Salmonella typhimurium
  5-20 mg/kg PO q12-24h × 5-10 days102,811 Pigeons
  10 mg/kg PO q12h113 Cockatiels
  10 mg/kg PO q12h × 4 days25 Chickens/PD; high efficacy for intestinal salmonellosis
  10-15 mg/kg PO, IM q12h × 5-7 days702 Raptors, waterfowl including Muscovy, Pekin ducklings/Riemerella (Pasteurella)
  10-20 mg/kg PO q24h197,200 Passerines, psittacines, pigeons (PD)
  15 mg/kg PO q24h609 Psittacines
  15 mg/kg PO q12h1,475 Ostrich chicks, pigeons (administration to adult birds led to therapeutic levels in crop milk)
  15 mg/kg PO, IM, IV q12h326 Raptors/PD; IV administration in owls may result in weakness, tachycardia, vasoconstriction
  15 mg/kg PO, SC q12h244 Most species
  15-30 mg/kg PO, IM q12h248 African grey parrots/PD
  20 mg/kg PO, SC, IM q12h323,702 Pigeons/administer parenterally, followed by oral treatment
  20-30 mg/kg PO q12-24h222 Pigeons
  25 mg/kg PO, SC q24h244 Experimental
  30 mg/kg PO, IM q24h812 Psittacines
  45 mg/kg PO q24h323 Pigeons
  50 mg/kg via nebulization × 4 hr (day 1, AM), then 25 mg/kg × 4 hr/day × 4 days815 Muscovy, Pekin ducklings/Riemerella (Pasteurella)
  25-50 mg/L drinking water85 Cranes (sandhill)/did not provide sufficient plasma levels
  26 mg/L drinking water119 Galliformes
  50 mg/L drinking water342,414 Chickens, turkeys/PD
  50-100 mg/L drinking water102 Gamebirds
  100-200 mg/L drinking water197,693,702 Psittacines, pigeons/PD; may need up to 300 mg/L to prevent recurrence of infection in pigeons702
  190-750 mg/L drinking water250 African grey parrots/PD
  200 mg/L drinking water247 Psittacines/PD; maintains plasma concentrations adequate only for highly susceptible bacteria
  200 mg/L drinking water198 Canaries
  500 mg/L drinking water467 Psittacines
  200 mg/kg soft feed198 Canaries
  250 mg/kg feed197 Budgerigars/PD
  250-1000 mg/kg feed q24h199,811 Psittacines, passerines
  500 mg/kg feed467 Psittacines, including Patagonian conures/PD; mix into steamed corn diet
  1000 mg/kg feed467 Senegal parrots/PD; mix into steamed corn diet
  0.2 mg/mL saline, flush q24h × 10 days63 Raptors/nasal flush
Erythromycin Macrolide; gram-positive spectrum; some activity against Mycoplasma;702 IM injection may cause severe muscle necrosis332
  5-10 mg/kg PO q8h810 Ratites
  10-20 mg/kg IM q24h199 Passerines
  10-20 mg/kg PO q12h702 Psittacines
  50-100 mg/kg PO q8-12h199 Passerines
  55-110 mg/kg PO q12h321 Poultry/Mycoplasma, Haemophilus
  60 mg/kg PO q12h354 Most species
  71 mg/kg PO q24h181 Pigeons/PD; Streptococcus bovis
  100 mg/kg PO825 Pigeons/PD; low plasma levels, but higher lung and trachea levels
  125 mg/kg PO q8h320 Pigeons
  102 mg/L drinking water186 Chicks/PD
  125 mg/L drinking water198 Canaries
  132 mg/L drinking water (10 days on, 5 days off, 10 days on)134,198 Most species, including canaries
  250-500 mg/L drinking water × 3-5 days147 Psittacines
  525-800 mg/L drinking water320 Psittacines
  1000 mg/L drinking water181,825 Pigeons/PD; Streptococcus bovis; plasma levels low; one study reported that lung and trachea levels were sub-therapeutic
  1500 mg/L drinking water702 Most species
  200 mg/kg soft feed198 Canaries, psittacines
Ethambutol (Myambutol, Lederle) Most species/Mycobacterium; use in combination with other agents (see Table 5-45)
  10 mg/kg PO q12h50 Most species
  15-20 mg/kg PO q12h × 3-12 mo63,64 Psittacines, raptors/Mycobacterium
  15-30 mg/kg PO q12-24h200 Passerines/Mycobacterium
  30 mg/kg PO q24h695 Most species/Mycobacterium
Flumequine (Biocik, Amacol) Quinolone; not available in the United States; may cause emesis
  30 mg/kg PO, IM q8-12h195,200 Passerines, pigeons (PD)
Furazolidone (NF180, Hess and Clark) Nitrofuran derivative; prohibited in food-producing birds because of its carcinogenic properties; use in birds linked with cardiomyopathy; therapeutic action is confined to the gastrointestinal tract
  15-20 mg/kg PO q24h200 Passerines
  100-200 mg/L drinking water672 Canaries
  200 mg/kg soft food672 Canaries
  220-440 mg/kg feed119 Waterfowl/Salmonella
  908 mg/kg feed808 Pigeons/Salmonella
Gentamicin Aminoglycoside; not generally recommended; narrow margin of safety; nephrotoxic;17,66,67 bird should be well hydrated; avoid doses higher than 2.5-5 mg/kg q8-12h67,253
  1-2 mg/kg IM q8h810 Ratites (excluding emus)/use only as last resort
  2.5 mg/kg IM q8h67 Raptors/PD
  3-10 mg/kg IM q6-12h200 Passerines
  5 mg/kg IM q8h98,165,384 Pheasants, emus (PD), cranes (PD)
  5 mg/kg IM q12h253 Ostriches, emus/PD; rapidly eliminated; small volume of distribution
  5-10 mg/kg IM q8-12h643 Cockatiels/PD
  5-10 mg/kg IM q4h98,699 Pigeons/PD; Salmonella
  10 mg/kg IM q6h98,165 Quail/PD
  40 mg/kg PO q8-24h200 Passerines/15-25 g BW
  2-3 drops ophthalmic solution intranasal q8h811 Most species
Isoniazid Most species/Mycobacterium; should be used in combination with other drugs (see Table 5-45); M. avium often develops resistance
  5-15 mg/kg PO q12h199,671,811 Most species, including passerines
  30 mg/kg PO q24h824 Most species
Kanamycin (Kantrim, Fort Dodge) Aminoglycoside
10-20 mg/kg IM q12h16,199 Most species, including passerines/enteric infections
  13-65 mg/L drinking water × 3-5 days16,96 Most species/make fresh daily
Lincomycin Gram-positive/anaerobic spectrum indicated for pododermatitis, chronic dermatitis, and mycoplasmosis702
  0.25-0.5 mL intraarticular q24h × 7-10 days702 Raptors
  25-50 mg/kg PO q12h316 Raptors/musculoskeletal surgical repair
  35-50 mg/kg PO q12-24h200 Passerines
  35-50 mg/pigeon q24h × 7-14 days510 Pigeons
  50-75 mg/kg PO, IM q12h × 7-10 days64,149,702 Psittacines, raptors/pododermatitis, osteomyelitis
  100 mg/kg PO q24h671 Raptors
  100 mg/kg IM q12h64 Psittacines
  100-200 mg/L drinking water198 Canaries
  2000 mg/L drinking water × 5-7 days63 Waterfowl/Pasteurella, mycoplasmal tenosynovitis
  Topical316 Raptors/mixture of lincomycin (50 mg/mL) and tobramycin (10 mg/mL) was used to flush the flexor tendon sheath
Lincomycin/spectinomycin (LS-50 Water Soluble, Upjohn; Linco-Spectin 100 Soluble Powder, Upjohn) Effective against gram-positive bacteria, Mycoplasma
50 mg/kg PO q24h534 Most species
528 mg/L drinking water for first 5 days of life309 Turkey poults/PD; Mycoplasma airsacculitis
  750 mg/L drinking water × 3-7 days119 Waterfowl
  ¼-½ tsp/L drinking water × 10-14 days134 Most species/using soluble powder 16.7 g lincomycin and 33.3 g spectinomycin per 2.55 oz powder
  2.5-5 mg/chick IM310 once Chicken chicks/PD; may prevent E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus infections; injectable form not available in the United States
Marbofloxacin (Zeniquin, Pfizer) Fluoroquinolone; not approved for use in food-producing birds;258 less likely to cause emesis compared to enrofloxacin;702 use with caution in juvenile birds;341 may adversely affect molt149
  2 mg/kg PO q24h26 Broiler chickens/PD
  2-3 mg/kg IV, IO q24h280,281 Raptors/PD
  2.5-5 mg/kg PO q24h116 Blue and gold macaws/PD
  3-12 mg/kg PO q24h319 Turkeys/PD
  5 mg/kg PO q24h146 Most species
  5 mg/kg IM, IV183 Ostriches/PD
  10-15 mg/kg PO, IM q12-24h63,149,279,702 Raptors, bustards/PD
Meropenem (Merrem, Abbott) Broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic; penetrates well into most body fluids and tissues, including cerebrospinal fluid
  175 mg/kg IM q24h725 Pigeons/PD
Metronidazole Active against most anaerobes; see Table 5-4
  10 mg/kg IM q24h × 2 days812 Psittacines
  10-30 mg/kg PO q12h × 10 days812 Psittacines
  50 mg/kg PO q24h × 5-7 days50,63,609 Most species, including raptors, psittacines/anaerobes
  50 mg/kg PO q12h × 30 days692 Amazon parrots, cockatoos/anaerobic and hemorrhagic enteritis
Minocycline Products or foods containing Ca, Al, Mg, Fe reduce or alter absorption; outdated tetracycline is nephrotoxic270
  10 mg/kg PO q12h559 Penguins
  15 mg/kg PO q12h649 Raptors/some anaerobes
  5000 mg/kg feed16 Parakeets/use as antibiotic impregnated millet
Miporamicin 100 mg/kg feed × 5 days787 Poultry/macrolide; under development; make preparation fresh daily
Neomycin Aminoglycoside/not absorbed from gastrointestinal tract; potentially nephrotoxic when administered IM; use is generally limited to topical formulations for skin, eyes, and ears, and, occasionally, oral treatment of enteric infections
  5-10 mg/kg IM q12h341 Raptors/toxic if overdosed
  10 mg/kg PO q24h200 Passerines
  10 mg/kg PO q8-12h96 Most species
  80-100 mg/L drinking water672 Canaries
  80-264 mg/L drinking water119 Waterfowl
  126 mg/L drinking water102 Galliformes
  70-220 mg/kg feed × 14-21 days70,119 Waterfowl, galliformes/Clostridium, necrotizing enteritis
  Topical q6-12h672 Most species/superficial wounds; cover with bandage; may be absorbed systemically and may cause ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
Nitrofuran Systemic and topical use banned in poultry used for human consumption because of its carcinogenic properties257
  26 mg/L drinking water × 5-7 days119 Galliformes
  50-200 mg/kg feed × 5-7 days119 Galliformes/Clostridium, Salmonella
Nitrofurazone Systemic use banned in food-producing birds because of its carcinogenic properties;257 may be hepatotoxic; avoid use or reduce dosage in hot weather; do not use in finches or pigeons468,693
  0.3 mg/L drinking water × 7 days671 Lories, mynahs/do not put in lory nectar
  0.6 mg/L drinking water × 7-10 days518 Most species
Norfloxacin (Noroxin, Merck; Vetriflox 20% Oral Solution, Lavet Ltd, Budapest) Fluoroquinolone; not approved for use in food-producing birds;258 administration of the total daily dose to chickens over 2-4 hr (pulse dosing) has been recommended765
  3-5 mg/kg PO q12h810 Ratites
  8 mg/kg PO q24h27 Chickens/PD
  10 mg/kg PO q24h439 Chickens, geese/PD
  10 mg/kg PO q6-8h439 Turkeys/PD
  15 mg/kg in water over 2-4 hr716 Turkeys/PD; once per day pulse dosing was more efficacious than continuous dosing in the water
  20-40 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days476 Chickens
  100 mg/L drinking water × 5 days716 Chickens/PD
  175 mg/L drinking water × 5 days681 Chickens
Novobiocin sodium 15-30 mg/kg PO q24h787 Poultry/effective against some gram-positive cocci
  220-385 mg/kg feed511 Poultry, waterfowl
Oleandomycin Macrolide; not available in the United States
  25 mg/kg IM q24h200 Passerines
  50 mg/kg PO q24h200 Passerines
Orbifloxacin (Orbax, Schering-Plough) 15-20 mg/kg PO q24h335 Japanese quail/PD
Ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine (Primor, Pfizer) See sulfonamides
60 mg/kg PO q12h323 Pigeons
475-951 mg/L drinking water × 7-10 days323 Pigeons
  200-800 mg/kg feed119 Waterfowl/colibacillosis
Oxytetracycline IM administration may cause muscle irritation or necrosis; may be useful in treating Chlamydophila, fowl cholera;849 products or foods containing Al, Ca, Mg, Fe reduce or alter absorption; outdated tetracycline is nephrotoxic270
  2 mg/mL nebulization q4-6h208 Parakeets/requires ultrasonic nebulizer; therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic were present in lung and trachea; not effective in treating systemic infections outside the respiratory tract
  5 mg/kg SC, IM q12-24h72 Chicken chicks/PD
  5 mg/kg IM q12h841 Ratites
  10 mg/kg IM q3d810 Ratites
  15-50 mg/kg SC, IM q12-24h200 Passerines
  16 mg/kg IM q24h795 Great horned owls/PD
  23 mg/kg IV q6-8h795 Pheasants/PD
  25-50 mg/kg PO, IM q8h × 5-7 days63 Raptors
  43 mg/kg IM q24h795 Pheasants/PD
  48 mg/kg IM q48h363 Owls
  50 mg/kg IM q24h × 5-7 days702 Psittacines
  50 mg/kg PO q6-8h320 Pigeons
  50-75 mg/kg SC242 Goffin’s cockatoos, blue and gold macaws
  50-100 mg/kg SC, IM q2-3d200,251 Cockatoos (PD), passerines
  50-200 mg/kg IM q3-5d702 Raptors
  58 mg/kg IM q24h795 Amazon parrots/PD
  80 mg/kg IM q48h702 Pigeons <400 g
  200 mg/kg IM q24h50,63 Most species including waterfowl/Pasteurella
  130-400 mg/L drinking water70,320 Pigeons
  650-2000 mg/L drinking water × 5-14 days147 Psittacines
  2500 mg/L drinking water and 2500 mg/kg feed702,873 Chickens (PD), turkeys (PD), waterfowl/simultaneous medication of feed and water required to reach therapeutic level
  300 mg/kg soft feed × 5-14 days147 Psittacines
Penicillin 50,000 IU/kg IM119 Waterfowl/Erysipelas, new duck disease
  8 g/40 g packet bone cement814 PMMA beads (ratio 1:5)
Penicillin benzathine/procaine Anecdotal reports suggest procaine penicillin should not be used in birds <1 kg BW because of possible toxic effects811
  200 mg/kg IM q24h50 Most species
Penicillin G 6 mg/kg IV130 Ostriches, emus/PD; rapidly eliminated; small volume of distribution
Penicillin procaine Anecdotal reports suggest procaine penicillin should not be used in birds <1 kg BW; adverse reactions (possible toxic effects) described in finches, canaries, budgerigars, cockatiels239,811
  100 mg/kg IM q24-48h349 Turkeys/PD
Piperacillin (Pipracil, Wyeth) Extended-spectrum penicillin with broad-spectrum activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms including Pseudomonas;702 not available as a veterinary product in the United States; see piperacillin/tazobactam below564
  25 mg/kg IM811 Ratites (chicks <6 mo of age)
  75-100 mg/kg IM q4-6h811,812 Amazon parrots
  100 mg/kg IM q12h197 Psittacines/PD
  100 mg/kg IM q12h1 Ostrich chicks/administer concurrent to amikacin (20 mg/kg IM q12h)
  100 mg/kg IM, IV q8-12h577,649,702 Pigeons, raptors, cranes
  100 mg/kg IM q4-6h678 Red-tailed hawks, great horned owls/PD
  100-200 mg/kg IM, IV q6-12h696,702 Most species, including psittacines
  200 mg/kg IM q8h666 Budgerigars (PD), raptors
  200 mg/kg IM, IV q4-8h244,696,811 Most species, including passerines
  0.02 mL (4 mg) in macaw eggs; 0.01 mL (2 mg) in small eggs517 Eggs/inject 200 mg/mL solution into air cell on days 14, 18, and 22
Piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn, Tazocin, Wyeth) 100 mg/kg IM, IV q6-12h118,564 Most species, including psittacines/PD in Amazon parrots
Polymyxin B Polypeptide antibiotic; effective against most gram-negative bacteria; potentially significant adverse effects on the renal and neurologic systems5
  10-15 mg/kg IM q24h341 Raptors/not absorbed if given PO
  50,000 U/L drinking water387 Canaries
  50,000 U/kg soft feed387 Canaries
Povidone-iodine Topical to lesions, then wash off63 Raptors/wound cleansing; antibacterial, antifungal activity
Rifabutin (Mycobutin, Pharmacia) 15-45 mg/kg PO q24h200,695,824 Most species including passerines/Mycobacterium; use in combination with other agents (see Table 5-45)
Rifampicin See rifampin
Rifampin Most species/Mycobacterium; use with other agents (see Table 5-45); may cause/be associated with hepatitis, CNS signs, depression, and vomiting; yellow-orange urates observed in bustards702
  10-20 mg/kg PO q12-24h200,702,811 Most species including passerines, psittacines/Mycobacterium
  45 mg/kg PO q24h749,824 Most species, including Amazon parrots, cranes
Silver sulfadiazine Topical q12-24h228,672 Most species/burns, ulcers; Amazon foot necrosis; bandage application preferred
Spectinomycin (Spectam, Agri Labs) 10-30 mg/kg IM q8-12h64 Psittacines
25-35 mg/kg IM q8-12h322 Pigeons
  165-275 mg/L drinking water323 Pigeons
  200-400 mg/L drinking water198 Canaries
  400 mg/kg soft feed198 Canaries
Spiramycin (Provamycin, Rovamycin) Macrolide; not available in the United States
  20 mg/kg IM q24h341 Raptors
  250 mg/kg PO q24h511 Most species, including raptors/poorly absorbed
  200-400 mg/L drinking water198 Canaries
  400 mg/kg soft feed198 Canaries
Streptomycin (Streptomycin Sulfate, Roerig) May be nephrotoxic; not recommended;672 consider amikacin as an alternative; Mycobacterium; use in combination with other agents (see Table 5-45)
  15 mg/kg PO q24h341 Raptors/highly neurotoxic
  20-40 mg/kg PO q24h452 Most species
  25-50 mg/kg IM q24h Chickens/PD
  30 mg/kg IM q12h50 Most species
Sulfachlorpyridazine (Vetisulid, Fort Dodge) Antiprotozoal drug
150-300 mg/L drinking water672 Canaries
  400 mg/L drinking water × 7-10 days691 Pigeons
Sulfadimethoxine (Albon, Pfizer) Coccidiostat; see sulfonamides
25-55 mg/kg PO q24h × 3-7 days392,665 Raptors/loading dose at higher end × 1 day
  50 mg/kg PO q24h112 Cranes
  190-250 mg/L drinking water511 Pigeons/loading dose 375 mg/L drinking water
  330-400 mg/L drinking water on day 1 followed by 200-265 mg/L × 4 days323 Pigeons
Sulfaquinoxaline (Sulquin 6-501, Solvay Animal Health; Sul-Q-Nox, Alfarma) See sulfonamides
250-500 mg/kg feed119 Waterfowl/avian cholera, new duck disease
Sulfonamides Broad-spectrum antimicrobial; prohibited in food-producing birds;849 contraindicated with dehydration, liver disease, or bone marrow suppression; gastrointestinal upset, regurgitation are common especially in macaws; resistance by Pseudomonas is common;696 use for longer than 2 wk may require vitamin supplementation
Tetracycline Products or foods containing Al, Ca, Mg, Fe reduce or alter absorption; outdated tetracycline is nephrotoxic270
  50 mg/kg PO q8h200,672 Most species, including passerines
  200-250 mg/kg PO q12-24h134,671 Most species/gavage
  40-200 mg/L drinking water66,119,134 Most species, including game birds
  100 mg/L drinking water645 Rheas
  200 mg/L drinking water692 Pigeons
  666 mg/L drinking water702 Pigeons
  100-600 mg/kg feed70,119 Game birds
Tiamulin (Denagard; Novartis) Bacteriostatic antibiotic; effective against Mycoplasma, some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and spirochetes614
  12.5 mg/kg PO × 3 days94 Poultry/intestinal spirochetosis
  25-50 mg/kg PO q24h177 Most species
  30 mg/kg PO q24h × 7 days629 Poultry adults
  60 mg/kg PO q24h × 7 days629 Poultry chicks
  225-250 mg/L drinking water × 3-7 days70,702 Poultry, pigeons
  1000 mg/L water629 Poultry eggs/dip
  300-400 mg/kg feed × 7 days70,629 Game birds
Tiamulin/chlortetracycline (Tetramutin, Novartis) 1-1.5 mg/kg feed × 7 days772 Chickens/Mycoplasma; Brachyspira-related diseases; may be used with salinomycin at low doses of 60 mg/kg without signs of incompatibility371
Ticarcillin (Ticar, SmithKline Beecham) Extended-spectrum penicillin; very poor absorption if injectable given PO
  75-100 mg/kg IM q4-6h696 Amazon parrots
  150-200 mg/kg IV q2-4h200 Passerines, soft bills
  200 mg/kg IM, IV q6-12h96,693 Most species, including pigeons, raptors/Pseudomonas242
  200 mg/kg IM q2-4h724 Blue-fronted Amazon parrots/PD
Ticarcillin/clavulanate (Timentin, SmithKline Beecham) 100 mg/kg IM, IV146 Most species/frequency not reported
200 mg/kg IM, IV q12h692 Most species
Tilmicosin (Micotil 300 Injection, Provitil-powder and Pulmotil AC-liquid, Elanco) Macrolide; handle with caution; potentially fatal to humans614
30 mg/kg PO q24h9 Poultry/PD
100-500 mg/L drinking water × 5 days395,416 Poultry chicks/Mycoplasma
Tobramycin Aminoglycoside; used only for severe infections caused by resistant Pseudomonas infections;702 neurotoxicity (irreversible auditory and vestibular ototoxicity) or nephrotoxicity may develop5
  0.25-0.5 mL intraarticular flush q24h × 7-10 days63 Raptors/septic arthritis
  2.5 mg/kg IM q8h147 Psittacines
  2.5-5 mg/kg IM, IV q12h696,702 Psittacines, passerines, raptors, pheasants, cranes
  5 mg/kg IM q12h50 Most species
  10 mg/kg IM q12h × 5-7 days149,534 Raptors
  Topical316 A mixture of lincomycin (50 mg/mL) and tobramycin (10 mg/mL) was used to flush the flexor tendon sheath
Trimethoprim Bacteriostatic activity against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
  10-20 mg/kg PO q8h195,199,511 Psittacines, passerines, pigeons (PD)
Trimethoprim/sulfadiazine (Tribrissen, Schering-Plough; Septra, Monarch) See sulfonamides
8 mg/kg SC, IM q12h577 Cranes
12-60 mg/kg PO q12h × 5-7 days63 Raptors/useful for sensitive infections in neonates
  16-24 mg/kg PO q8-12h577 Cranes
  20 mg/kg SC, IM q12h147 Psittacines
  30 mg/kg PO q8h343 Psittacines; combine with pyrimethamine for treatment of sarcocystosis
  30 mg/kg PO, IM, IV q12h315 Ostriches/PD
  60 mg/kg PO q12h323 Pigeons
  107 mg/L drinking water70 Galliformes
  475-950 mg/L drinking water × 7-10 days323 Pigeons
Trimethoprim/sulfatroxazole See sulfonamides
10-50 mg/kg PO q12h200 Passerines
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Roche; Septra, Burroughs Wellcome) See sulfonamides
8 mg/kg IM q12h702 Psittacines
10-50 mg/kg PO q24h200 Passerines
20 mg/kg PO q8-12h702 Psittacines
  21 mg/kg PO q12h1 Ostriches
  40-50 mg/kg PO q12h244 Psittacines
  48 mg/kg PO, IM q12h397 Raptors
  60 mg/kg PO q24h195 Pigeons/PD
  60-72 mg/kg PO q12h111 Cranes
  75 mg/kg IM q12h50 Most species/reduce dose if regurgitation occurs242
  100 mg/kg PO q12h50 Most species, including psittacines
  144 mg/kg PO q8-12h696 Most species
  360-400 mg/L drinking water × 10-14 days691 Most species, including pigeons
  400 mg/kg feed633 Geese
Tylosin (Tylan, Elanco) Macrolide; effective against gram-positive bacteria, Mycoplasma, Chlamydophila, Pasteurella; very irritating to muscles when administered IM; poor absorption if injectable given PO322
  3-5 mg/kg IM, IV q12h810 Ratites
  5-10 mg/kg PO q8h810 Ratites
  6.6-11 mg/kg SCc Galliformes
  10-40 mg/kg IM q6-8h200,672 Poultry, passerines
  15 mg/kg IM q8h469 Cranes/PD
  15-30 mg/kg IM q12h × 3 day63,149 Raptors
  17 mg/kg IM q24h × 7 days532 Emus/Mycoplasma
  20-30 mg/kg IM q8h × 3-7 days63 Waterfowl/Mycoplasma
  20-40 mg/kg IM q8h702 Psittacines
  25 mg/kg IM q8h469 Emus/PD
  25 mg/kg IM q6h469 Pigeons, quail/PD
  30 mg/kg IM q12h63 Most species/Mycoplasma
  50 mg/kg PO q24h70,200 Passerines, pigeons
  50 mg/L drinking water692 Most species
  250-400 mg/L drinking water198 Canaries
  300 mg/L drinking water × 6 wk568 House finches/Mycoplasma
  500 mg/L drinking water × 3-28 days70,395,702,788 Pigeons, galliformes, waterfowl, emus/Mycoplasma
  800 mg/L drinking water323 Pigeons
  1000 mg/L drinking water × 21 days512 House finches/Mycoplasma; give in conjunction with ophthalmic ciprofloxacin
  2000 mg/L drinking water321,322 Pigeons, poultry/Mycoplasma, Haemophilus
  200 mg/kg feed70 Galliformes
  100 mg/10 mL saline nasal flush44 × 10 days702 Waterfowl/Mycoplasma
Virginiamycin (Stafac, Pfizer) 22 mg/kg feed787 Poultry

a Most drug doses used in birds should be considered experimental. Patients should be monitored for adverse effects and treatment failure.242

b Wojick K. Personal communication. 2011.

c Ley D. Personal communication. 1997.

TABLE 5-2 Antifungal Agents Used in Birds.

Agent Dosage Species/Comments
Acetic acid (vinegar) 16 mL/L drinking water387 Most species/gastrointestinal yeast infections
Amphotericin B Fungicidal; lipid-based amphotericin B products are now available that have less toxicity than conventional desoxycholate form; Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (avian gastric yeast); preferred IV agent for aspergillosis; intratracheal administration for syringeal aspergilloma may cause tracheitis; potentially nephrotoxic; resistance may develop608
1.5 mg/kg IV q8h × 3-7 days52,238,651 Most species
1 mg/kg intratracheal q8-12h, dilute to 1 mL with sterile water651,671,672 Psittacines, raptors/aspergillosis
1 mg/kg intratracheal q12h × 12 days, then q48h × 5 wk63 Raptors/syringeal aspergilloma
100-109 mg/kg PO by gavage q12h × 10-30 days511,535,609,614 Budgerigars/avian gastric yeast (“megabacteria”); compound in simple syrup; resistance reported in budgerigars in Australia609
0.05 mg/mL sterile water52 Most species/nasal flush
0.2 mL PO q12h × 10 days147 Budgerigars/avian gastric yeast; use IV formulation (5 mg/mL)
0.25-1 mL PO q24h × 4-5 days63 Raptor neonates/candidiasis; not absorbed from alimentary tract
1000 mg/L drinking water × 10 days231 Budgerigars/avian gastric yeast
Topical147 Apply 10% solution to oropharynx
1.35 mg/kg topical q24h of a liposomally encapsulated formulation in a sterile, water-soluble lubricating gel74 Heron
7 mg/mL saline q12h814 Most species/nebulization × 15 min
Amphotericin B (3% cream) Topical to affected area q12h387,672 Most species/mycoses
Amphotericin B (A)/proteolytic nasal flush (P) Nasal flush (A) 1 mg/kg + (P) 0.2-0.4 mL diluted in 20 mL saline11 q24h Uses a commercial neomycin-chymotrypsin-trypsin-hydrocortisone ointment (Kymar, Schering-Plough); 10 mL per naris (flushed vigorously in small amounts)
Caprylic acid (Kaprycidin A, Ecological Formulas) Naturally occurring fatty acid with antifungal properties
271 mg/kg PO813 Most species/adjunctive treatment with imidazoles; seldom used
Clotrimazole Broad-spectrum antifungal agent; inhibits the growth of pathogenic yeasts such as Candida albicans; used commonly as adjunctive therapy for aspergillosis; administer via air sac, intratracheally, nebulization, or topically
  2 mg/kg intratracheal q24h × 5 days692 Psittacines/syringeal aspergilloma; apply with catheter directly into syrinx during anesthesia
  Inject 10 mg/kg into air sacs692 Psittacines/dilute in propylene glycol to 2.5 mg/mL; divide total dose between the 4 most accessible air sacs; toxic and may result in death in African grey parrots and other birds if injected into the viscera or IM629
  10 mg/mL saline flush238,609 Most species/effective against Aspergillus at sites that can be flushed; nasal flush using 1% solution
  1% solution814 Nebulization × 30-60 min
Enilconazole emulsion Imidazole antifungal agent with activity against Penicillium and dermatophytes16
  6 mg/kg PO q12h16 Eclectus parrots/glossal candidiasis; an elevation of AST was seen after 7 days of treatment
  1 mg (0.5 mL)/kg intratracheal of a 1:10 dilution q24h × 7-14 days702 Falcons/aspergillosis
  200 mg/L drinking water16 Canaries/cutaneous dermatophytosis
  Topical 1:10 dilution q12h × 21-28 days63 Raptors/cutaneous aspergillosis, candidiasis
  Topical or intratracheal 1:10-1:100 dilution64 Psittacines/aspergillosis, candidiasis
  3 topical soakings q3d651 Raptors, ostriches/dermatophytosis
  0.1 mL/kg in 5 mL sterile water, nebulize × 30 min, 5 days on, 2 off, up to 3 mo338 Raptors/aspergillosis
Fluconazole (Diflucan, Pfizer) Fungistatic; penetrates well into brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and eyes;16 only indicated if topical treatment (i.e., nystatin) is not feasible;16water-soluble; safest therapeutic index of the azoles; Candida, avian gastric yeast; may be ineffective against aspergillosis;651 death observed in budgerigars at 10 mg/kg PO q12h (this dose was also ineffective against avian gastric yeast)609
  2-5 mg/kg PO q24h × 7-10 days63,583 Most species, including raptors/gastrointestinal, systemic candidiasis; CNS, ocular mycoses
  4-6 mg/kg PO q12h240 Juvenile psittacines/candidiasis
  5 mg/kg PO q24h648 Cockatiels/candidiasis
  5-10 mg/kg PO q24h49 Gouldian finches/candidiasis
  5-15 mg/kg PO q12h × 14-60 days or longer692 Most species/aspergillosis, mycelial candidiasis; use lower dose for candidiasis
  8 mg/kg PO q24h × 30 days812 Psittacines/cryptococcosis
  10 mg/kg PO q48h648 Cockatiels/candidiasis
  10-20 mg/kg PO × 30 days387 Red-tailed hawks, gyrfalcons/aspergillosis
  15 mg/kg PO q12h × ≥ 28 days694 Pigeons/aspergillosis
  15 mg/kg PO q12h × 30 days following cessation of clinical signs11 Psittacines/chronic nasal aspergillosis
  20 mg/kg PO q48h240 Psittacines/PD; mucosal, systemic yeast infections; 2-3 treatments for resistant candidiasis
  100 mg/kg PO q24h608 Chickens/avian gastric yeast
  100 mg/kg soft food49 Gouldian finches/candidiasis
  25 mg/L nectar331 Hummingbirds/aspergillosis
  50 mg/L drinking water × 14-60 days692 Most species/systemic mycoses; candidiasis
  100 mg/L drinking water × 8 days648 Cockatiels/candidiasis
  150 mg/L drinking water49 Gouldian finches/candidiasis
Flucytosine (Ancobon, Roche) Fungistatic agent; penetrates well into CNS; used prophylactically in raptors (especially falcons) and waterfowl to prevent aspergillosis;a may be administered as adjunctive treatment; about 50% of Aspergillus strains are resistant;680 toxicity is low, however adverse effects may include gastrointestinal effects, hepatotoxicity, bone marrow depression80,680
  20-30 mg/kg PO q6h × 20-90 days363 Raptors/aspergillosis
  20-75 mg/kg PO q12h × 21 days702 Psittacines/generalized yeast or fungal infections
  50 mg/kg PO q12h × 14-28 days147,583 Psittacines, passerines, raptors
  50-75 mg/kg PO q8h651 Raptors/aspergillosis prophylaxis
  60 mg/kg PO q12h (birds >500 g)11 Most species, including galliformes, swans/syringeal aspergilloma
  75 mg/kg q12h × 5-7 days, then q24h × 14 days651 Raptors/prophylaxis for prevention of aspergillosis;a recommended to treat for 1 wk prior to and 2 wk after move; used routinely for domestically raised gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon hybrids from age 45 days
  75-120 mg/kg PO q6h583 Most species
  80-100 mg/kg PO q12h810 Ratites
  100-250 mg/kg PO q12h402 Psittacine neonates
  120 mg/kg PO q6h397 Raptors/aspergillosis
  150 mg/kg PO q12h (birds <500 g)11 Most species, including psittacines, galliformes, swans/syringeal aspergilloma
  250 mg/kg PO q12h397 Raptors/candidiasis
  250 mg/kg PO q12h × 14-17 days780 Finches/endoventricular mycoses; can use with chlorhexidine in drinking water
  50-250 mg/kg feed671,672 Psittacines, mynah birds
Griseofulvin 10 mg/kg PO q12h × 21 days63,702 Pigeons/dermatophytosis; gavage
30-50 mg/kg in drinking water q24h511,810 Ostriches/mycotic dermatitis
Iodine, 1% solution Topical651 Oral or cutaneous candidiasis
Itraconazole (Sporanox, Janssen) Most species/systemic mycoses, superficial candidiasis, dermatophytosis; fungistatic; maximal oral bioavailability when taken with a full meal;5 commercially available suspension is recommended as a first choice; don’t use compounded formulations because bulk drug not bioavailable or stable;93,245 study using SC controlled release gel formulation in ducks showed unacceptable tissue and plasma levels of the drug799
  2.5-5 mg/kg PO q24h585,609 African grey parrots/anorexia, depression, and toxicity reported at higher doses in this species241
  5 mg/kg PO q24h11 Galliformes, swans, ratites/aspergillosis
  5-10 mg/kg PO q24h585 Blue-fronted Amazon parrots/PD; aspergillosis; 10 mg/kg is required to achieve therapeutic concentrations in poorly perfused tissues
  5-10 mg/kg PO q12-24h × 10-14 days, then q48h363 Raptors/aspergillosis prophylaxisa
  5-10 mg/kg PO q12-24h397 Raptors
  5-10 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days, followed by q24h for a total of 14 days651 Raptors/Class I aspergillosis (mild, vague signs with inconclusive diagnostics or without histologic confirmation)
  5-10 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days, followed by q24h × 60-90 days651 Raptors/Class II-IV aspergillosis
  5-10 mg/kg PO q12h409,671 Passerines (towhees), waterfowl, penguins/aspergillosis prophylaxis in passerines; aspergillosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis in others
  6 mg/kg PO q12h483 Pigeons/PD; dosage will achieve fungicidal plasma concentrations
  6-8 mg/kg PO q12h × 5-7 days then q24h × 14 days651 Raptors/prevention of aspergillosis;a recommended to treat for 1 wk prior and 2 wk after move, and routinely for domestically raised gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon hybrids from age 45 days
  6-10 mg/kg PO384 Ratites/preferred azole
  10 mg/kg PO q24h394,583 Red-tailed hawks, gentoo penguins/PD; steady state plasma concentrations achieved within 2 wk16
10 mg/kg PO q24h × 14-90 days with food583,584,609 Psittacines/use in combination with non-azoles
10 mg/kg PO q12-24h584 Pigeons
10 mg/kg PO q12h × 21-60 days147,780 Finches/endoventricular mycoses; can use with chlorhexidine in drinking water
15 mg/kg PO q12h up to 4-6 wk363 Raptors/aspergillosis
20 mg/kg PO q24h93 Penguins/PD
26 mg/kg PO q12h Pigeons/PD; fungicidal levels achieved in respiratory tissue; further toxicologic studies are required
200 mg/kg feed up to 100 days663 Gouldian finches/PD; dermatomycoses; beads from capsules were mixed with small amount of oil and seed
Ketoconazole (Nizoral, Janssen) Most species/systemic mycoses (e.g., aspergillosis), candidiasis; fungistatic; less toxic than amphotericin B; more toxic than itraconazole; may be associated with potentially fatal hepatotoxicity;5 >20 mg/kg may cause regurgitation (if regurgitation, discontinue for 1-2 days, then restart)
  3 mg/kg PO q24h × 7 days70 Pigeons
  5-10 mg/kg PO q24h810 Ratites
  8 mg/kg PO q12h × 30 days70 Ostriches
  10-20 mg/kg PO q24h70 Ostriches
  10-30 mg/kg PO q12h × 30-60 days692 Most species
  12.5 mg/kg PO q24h × 30 days672 Swans/candidiasis
  15 mg/kg PO q12h397 Raptors/candidiasis
  20 mg/kg PO q24h × 14 days147 Psittacines, passerines, raptors
  20 mg/kg PO q12h402 Psittacine neonates
  20 mg/kg PO q8h × 7-14 days609 Psittacines/refractory candidiasis
  20-30 mg/kg PO q8h238 Cockatoos
20-40 mg/kg PO q12h × 15-60 days693 Pigeons
25 mg/kg PO q12h × 14 days702 Ratites, raptors/aspergillosis
30 mg/kg PO q12h × 7-14 days425 Amazon parrots/PD
30 mg/kg PO q12h × 7-30 days425,692 Pigeons (PD), raptors/prophylactic in raptors for aspergillosis
50 mg/kg/day PO150 Toucans
60 mg/kg PO q12h838 Raptors/PD (common buzzard); aspergillosis
200 mg/L drinking water, nectar, or soft feed × 7-14 days49,198,331 Canaries, hummingbirds, gouldian finches/dissolve crushed tablet in ½-1 tsp vinegar
Miconazole Fungistatic; inhibits the growth of Candida albicans, Malassezia, and dermatophytes; injectable miconazole is not available in the United States
5 mg/kg intratracheal q12h × 5 days842 Psittacines/10 mg/mL solution diluted with saline; syringeal mycoses; use with flucytosine; clotrimazole may be an alternative
10 mg/kg IM q24h × 6-12 days702 Raptors/generalized aspergillosis
20 mg/kg IV q8h702 Psittacines/candidiasis, cryptococcosis
Topical to affected areas q12h651,779 Cutaneous fungal infections; used in conjunction with oral itraconazole; dermatophytosis
Nystatin Drug of choice for treatment of candidiasis; not systemically absorbed across intact gastrointestinal tract;5,16 oral lesions must be treated by direct contact with medication;16 when treating neonates, administer separately from formula to maximize concentration and contact time16
5000 U/bird PO q12h × 10 days231,232 Goldfinches/avian gastric yeast; ineffective in budgerigars
20,000-100,000 U/bird PO q24h × 7 days70,702 Pigeons/candidiasis
100,000 U/kg PO q12h322,397 Pigeons, raptors
  250,000-430,000 U/kg PO q12h147 Hummingbirds
  250,000-500,000 U/kg PO q12h810 Ratites
300,000 U/kg PO q12h × 7-14 days63,238 Most species, including waterfowl
300,000-600,000 U/kg PO q8-12h × 7-14 days147 Psittacines
500,000 U/kg PO q8h × 5 days159 Toucanette (safron)/candidiasis
Topical q6h368 Hummingbirds/candidiasis; direct application using a cotton swab
25,000 U/L nectar368 Hummingbirds
100,000 U/L drinking water49,198 Canaries, finches
200,000 U/kg soft feed49,63 Canaries, finches
Parconazole (Parcomyc, Janssen-Cilag) 30-60 mg/kg feed680 Guinea fowl/candidiasis; prophylaxis; not available in the United States
Pimaricin (Natamycin, Alcon) 1 drop in affected eye topically q8h768 Lovebirds/macrolide antifungal; keratomycosis
Povidone iodine Topical to lesions, then rinse63 Raptors/wound cleansing; antibacterial, antifungal activity
Silver sulfadiazine Topical to affected areas q12-24h228,672 Most species/bandage application preferred
STA solution (salicyclic acid 3 g, tannic acid 3 g, ethyl alcohol to 100 mL) Topical702 Fungal dermatitis
Terbinafine Fungicidal; questionable therapeutic potential for the treatment of aspergillosis in avian species; higher dose or use in combination with itraconazole may be more effective245
10-15 mg/kg PO q12-24h170 Most species
15 mg/kg PO q24h53 Penguins/PD
15-30 mg/kg PO q12h245 Most species
  22 mg/kg PO q24h54 Raptors/PD
1 mg/mL solution via nebulization637 Most species
Voriconazole (Vfend, Pfizer) Most active drug against aspergillosis, although some strains resistant;55 difficult to extrapolate drug doses between species; safety unproven in birds; PO and IV solutions available; may need to adjust dose for long term treatment to maintain therapeutic concentrations;245 compounded suspensions stable up to 30 days at room temperature567
10 mg/kg PO, IV q12h95 Chickens/PD
10 mg/kg PO q12h or 20 mg/kg q24h5557 Pigeons/PD
12-18 mg/kg PO q12h254 African grey parrots/PD
12.5 mg/kg PO q12h188,720 Raptors
18 mg/kg PO q8h306 Amazons/PD
20 mg/kg PO q24h × 21 days595 Many species
40 mg/kg PO q24h798 Quail/PD

a Prophylatic use of antifungal agents may be indicated in newly captured or admitted birds of susceptible species, and in birds undergoing change of management or transfer of enclosure.651

TABLE 5-3 Antiviral and Immunomodulating Agents Used in Birds.

Agent Dosage Species/Comments
Acemannan (Carravet, Carrington Laboratories) 1 mg/kg SC q7d857 Chemotherapeutic adjunct therapy
2 mg/kg intralesional q7d × 4 treatments857 Use before surgical debulking of fibrosarcomas
Acyclovir (Zovirax, Burroughs Wellcome) Antiviral agent; active against herpesviruses and cytomegalovirus; IM injection of the water-soluble sodium salt (IV formulation) may cause severe muscle necrosis; phlebitis and neurologic signs may occur with IV administration; most effective when administered before clinical signs begin; birds should be treated for a minimum of 7 days; the reconstituted solution is unstable and should be divided into aliquots and frozen16,702,812
  10 mg/kg IM q24h × 5-14 days starting 3 days postexposure156 Chickens/Marek’s disease
  20-40 mg/kg IM q12h689 Psittacines/psittacine herpesvirus
  29 mg/bird PO q8h × 7 days63 Pigeons/herpesvirus
  80 mg/kg PO q8h × 7 days569 Quaker parakeets/PD; psittacine herpesvirus prophylaxis or treatment
  120 mg/kg PO q12h697 Tragopans/PD
  330 mg/kg PO q12h × 4-7 days401 Psittacine neonates/psittacine herpesvirus
  330 mg/kg PO q12h × 7-14 days363 Raptors/falcon and owl herpesvirus; may cause vomiting
  ≤400 mg/kg feed156 Quaker parakeets/herpesvirus
  1000 mg/L drinking water156,670 Quaker parakeets/herpesvirus; gavage
Amantadine (Symmetrel, Endo Labs) Antiviral agent; inhibits replication of influenza A viruses156
  1 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 wk296 African grey parrots/no effect on avian bornavirus infection
  10 mg/kg PO × 3 days pre- and 18 days post-exposure156 Turkeys/influenza viruses; must be administered before and during virus exposure
  25 mg/kg PO × 10 days following infection156 Chickens
  100 mg/L drinking water156 Chickens/can use simultaneously with killed influenza vaccine
Echinacea (Echinacea solution, Biobotania) 0.5 mL/kg per L drinking water q24h × 5 days702 Psittacines/herbal immunostimulant
  1 mL/L drinking water671 Psittacines; use alcohol-free formulation
Famciclovir (Famvir, Novartis) 25 mg/kg PO q12h807 Ducklings/PD; antiviral agent; duck hepatitis; toxic effects were not reported
Imiquimod cream (Aldara, 3M) Applied topically 3×/wk several hr before the morning feeding451 Psittacines/cloacal papillomatosis; thought to boost host cell-mediated immunity; masses decreased in size in one report, but not in another;447 complete remission did not occur in either
ImmunoRegulin (Propionibacterium Acnes, Neogen) 0.13 mg/kg (up to 0.08 mg [0.2 mL] max) SC, IM days 1,3,7,14,28,42, then q30d45 Psittacines/immune therapy for chronic feather pickers; induces macrophage and lymphokine production; enhances cell-mediated immunity; increases natural killer cell activity; do not use with corticosteroids
Interferon α2a Glycoprotein with immunomodulating and antiproliferative capabilities as well as antiviral activity
  30 U q24h × 5 days, 30 U 2×/wk × 2 wk, then 30 U q7d × 2 wk299 Most species/proventricular dilatation disease; may be associated with temporary clinical improvement
  60-240 U/kg SC, IM q12h733 Most species/stock solution: mix 1 mL (3,000,000 U/mL) with 100 mL sterile water (30,000 U/mL); can freeze as 2 mL vials up to 1 yr; mix 2 mL of stock into 1 L LRS (=60 U/mL); refrigerate up to 3 mo
  1500 U/kg PO q24h16 Psittacines
  1,000,000 U IM q48h to q7d × 3 treatments762 African grey parrots/circovirus; omega alpha-2 interferon
  1000 U/L drinking water × 14-28 days691 Pigeons/circovirus
Levamisole Anthelmintic with immunostimulation properties; low therapeutic index (toxic reactions and deaths reported)
  1.25-2.5 mg/kg PO, SC670 Poultry
  2 mg/kg SC, IM q14d × 3 treatments87,672 Most species, including macaws
  11 mg/L drinking water × 3-5 wk133 Most species
Penciclovir (Denavir, Novartis) 10 mg/kg IP q24h × 12-24 wk465 Ducks/PD; antiviral agent active against herpesviruses; duck hepatitis B virus; viral levels were significantly reduced; no toxic effects observed; dissolve in 2 mL of 1% DMSO
Rimantadine (Flumadine, Forest) 100 mg/L drinking water156 Chickens/influenza viruses; must be used before and during exposure
Silymarin (milk thistle) 100-150 mg/kg PO divided q8-12h11 Most species/hepatic antioxidant; used in patients with liver disease and as ancillary to chemotherapy; use an alcohol-free liquid formulation
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 20-50 mg/kg IM q1-7d397,672 Most species, including raptors/antioxidant; immunostimulant; nutritional support; acidify the gut

TABLE 5-4 Antiparasitic Agents Used in Birds.

Agent Dosage Species/Comments
Albendazole (11.36%) (Valbazen, Pfizer) Broad-spectrum anthelmintic; may be toxic in keas, some Columbiformes at 50-100 mg/kg361,759
  5.2 mg/kg PO q12h × 3 days, repeat in 14 days810 Ratites/flagellates, cestodes
  10 mg/kg PO once158 Poultry/PK
  15-20 mg/kg PO once150 Toucans
  25 mg/kg PO q24h × 90 days, then repeat × 120 days when signs returned612 Cockatoos/Encephalitozoon hellem keratoconjunctivitis
  25-50 mg/kg PO q24h × 3-4 days759 Doves, rock partridges/Capillaria
  47 mg/kg PO once, then repeat in 4 wk743 Chickens/lower ascarid, Heterakis fecal counts than nontreated
  50 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days108 Amazon parrots/microsporidian keratoconjunctivitis
  113-116 mg/23 kg q12h × 3 days, repeat in 14 wk43 Ratites/protozoal infections
Amitraz (Mitaban, Upjohn) Highly effective against Dermanyssus gallinae504
  Spray 2.5 L/bird with 0.025% solution (dilute 1 part amitraz [12.5%] with 500 parts water), repeat in 10 days102 Ostriches/lice
Amprolium (Corid, TEVA; Amprol Plus MSD, AgVet) Pyridimine derivative coccidiostat; although rarely encountered, efficacy can be reduced by high doses of thiamine;757 some coccidial organisms of mynahs, toucans have shown resistance43
  2.2 mg/kg PO115 Sandhill cranes/ineffective in preventing experimentally induced disseminated visceral coccidiosis
  13-26 mg/kg PO308 Chickens/PK,PD; bioavailability almost 4 times greater in fasted birds
  25 mg/kg/day PO43 Pigeons
  30 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days43,341 Raptors
  5-100 mg/L drinking water × 5-7 days43 Most species/flock treatment
  50-100 mg/L drinking water × 5-7 days173,506 Most species, including passerines, parakeets
  60 mg/L drinking water111 Cranes
  200 mg/L drinking water323,324 Pigeons/flock treatment
  250 mg/L drinking water × 7 days843 Psittacines (keas)/Sarcocystis; use in combination with pyrimethamine and primaquine
  575 mg/L drinking water119 Poultry/using a 9.6% solution
  ¼ tsp/L drinking water × 3-5 days320,321 Pigeons, poultry/20% soluble powder
  115-235 mg/kg feed113,757 Poultry, pheasants, cranes/coccidia; Sarcocystis; lower dose is prophylactic; higher dose is therapeutic
  125 mg/kg feed647 Turkeys/31/33 Eimeria isolates resistant
Cambendazole (Equiben, MSD, AgVet) 60-100 mg/kg PO q24h × 3-7 days506 Most species
  75 mg/kg PO q24h × 2 days43,325 Pigeons
Carbaryl 5% (Sevin Dust, Bayer) Topical; light dusting of plumage or nest box litter43 Most species/ants, ectoparasites; remove treated litter after 24 hr
  1-2 tsp to nesting material43 Most species/ectoparasite control
Carnidazole (Spartrix, Wildlife Pharma-ceuticals) Treatment for Trichomonas, Hexamita, Histomonas43
5 mg/bird PO693 Doves (adults), pigeons (squabs)
  10 mg/bird PO785 Pink pigeons (adults)/Trichomonas; squabs ≤18 days old administer 5 mg
  12.5-25 mg/kg PO once43,126 Pigeons/Trichomonas, use lower dose with juvenile birds; combine with dimetridazole to treat flock
  20 mg/kg PO once324 Pigeons
  20 mg/kg q24h PO × 2 days341,397 Raptors
  20-25 mg/kg PO once43 Raptors/single dose not always effective in falcons, bustards with advanced infections
  20-30 mg/kg PO q24h × 1-2 days43,126 Most species, including pigeons, psittacines
  20-30 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days28 House finches/reliably cleared Trichomonas gallinae if caught prior to clinical signs
  30 mg/kg PO once261 Raptors/Trichomonas
  30 mg/kg PO q12h × 3 days392 Raptors
  30 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days660 Raptors/Trichomonas
  30-50 mg/kg PO, repeat in 10-14 days387,672 Cockatiels/Giardia
  33 mg/kg PO, repeat in 14 and 28 days49 Society finches, Gouldian finches/flagellates; 0.5 mg/adult (based on 15 g); 0.25 mg/nestling (based on 7.5 g)
  50 mg/kg PO once363 Raptors
  120 mg/kg PO as single dose or divided over 2-5 days817 American kestrels, screech owls/Trichomonas infections resistant to treatment with lower doses
Chloroquine phosphate Generally used with primaquine for Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon; overdose can result in death43
  5 mg/kg PO q24h or in feed672,757 Game birds, penguins/in penguins, precede treatment with primaquine by 6 hr
  10 mg/kg PO q7d661 Most species/preventative treatment for Plasmodium once bird is stable; use with primaquine (1 mg/kg q7d)
  10 mg/kg PO, then 5 mg/kg at 6, 18, and 24 hr43 Penguins
  10 mg/kg PO, then 5 mg/kg at 6, 24, and 48 hr113 Raptors/use with 0.3 mg/kg primaquine (at 24 hr following the initial chloroquine dose) q24h × 7 days
  20 mg/kg PO or IV, then 10 mg/kg at 6, 18, and 24 hr; repeat q7d × 3-5 treatments671 Raptors/Plasmodium; IV is recommended for initial dose in acute cases; use with 1 mg/kg primaquine q24h × 2 days
  25 mg/kg PO, then 15 mg/kg PO at 12, 24, and 48 hr665,747 Most species, including raptors/use with 0.75-1.3 mg/kg primaquine at 0 hr
  60 mg/kg PO q24h × 7 days551 Raptors/Haemoproteus; use in conjunction with mefloquine and primaquine
  2000 mg/L drinking water q24h × 14 days126,757 Passerines, game birds/juice covers bitter taste of drug757
Clazuril (Appertex, Janssen) Benzene-acetonitrile anticoccidial
2.5 mg/bird PO once; can repeat monthly830 Pigeons/oocyst shedding commences 20 days post-treatment
  3 mg/kg PO once, or × 5 days288 Chickens/PK; drug detected in eggs after multiple dosing
  5 mg/kg PO once126 Pigeons
  5-10 mg/kg PO q24h × 2 days341 Raptors
  5-10 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days, off 2 days, on 3 days506 Poultry, pigeons
  5-10 mg/kg PO q72h × 3 treatments43,149 Waterfowl, raptors
  6.25 mg/kg PO once43 Pigeons
  7 mg/kg PO × 3 days, off 2 days, on 3 days43,64 Psittacines
  30 mg/kg PO once126 Raptors
  1.1 or 5.5 mg/kg feed115 Sandhill cranes/ineffective in preventing experimentally induced disseminated visceral coccidiosis
Clopidol (25%) (Coyden-25, Alpharma) 125 mg/kg feed647 Turkeys/16/33 Eimeria isolates showed partial to complete resistance
  125-250 mg/kg feed757 Game birds/coccidiosis, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium
Clorsulon (Curatrem, Merial) Benzenesulfonamide anthelmintic and flukicide
  20 mg/kg PO q14d × 3 treatments43,141,671 Psitacines, waterfowl, raptors/trematodes, cestodes
  20 mg/kg PO 3×/wk × 14 days63 Waterfowl, raptors/trematodes, cestodes
Crotamiton (Eurax, Westwood-Squibb) Topical to affected areas43 Most species/mites (i.e., Knemidokoptes); use in combination with ivermectin
Cypermethrin (5%) (Max Con, Y-Tex) 60-120 mg/chicken topically over dorsal neck21 Chickens/effective against Triatoma infestans
  Spray or dip with 1:100 dilution43 Pigeons, ostriches/lice, mites
Decoquinate (Deccox, Alpharma) 20-40 mg/kg feed304,787 Chickens/Eimeria; very effective in isolates studied
Deltamethrin (Spot On, Schering-Plough) 50 mg/L topical spray511 Ostriches/lice; spray until runoff
Dichlorophene (Tapeworm tablets, Happy Jack) 100 mg PO q10d × 2 treatments, repeat in 10 days prn417 Pigeons/cestodes; administer after a 12-hr fast
Diclazuril (Clinicox 0.5%, Huvepharma AD; DiClosol 1%, Pharmaswede) Benzene-acetonitrile anticoccidial; some Eimeria resistance in poultry documented recently;4,647 rotation suggested for long-term prevention
  10 mg/kg PO q12h on days 0,1,2,4,6,8,10514 Hawaiian crows/Toxoplasma
  5 mg/L drinking water × 6 days33 Chickens/reduced oocyst viability and virulence
  5-10 mg/L drinking water × 2 days213 Chickens/effective in preventing disease and reducing total oocysts, lesions and mortality in infected birds with mixed Eimeria infections
  0.5-1 mg/kg feed123,213 Chickens, turkeys/coccidia
  1 mg/kg feed647 Turkeys/21/33 Eimeria isolates partially or completely resistant
Dimetridazole (Emtryl 40% powder, Rhone Merieux) Trichomonas, Giardia, Hexamita, Spironucleus, Histomonas; low therapeutic index; hepatotoxic to lories, some passerines (e.g., robins) and fledgling birds;43 not recommended for finches; highly toxic to geese, ducks, and pigeons;757 not available in many countries (United States, European Union) because of human health risks; Canada has banned use in food-producing animals;561 do not give during breeding season43
  50 mg/kg PO q24h × 10 days543 Falcons/Enterocytozoon bieneusi
  50 mg/kg PO or in drinking water q24h × 6 days126 Pigeons
  100 mg/L drinking water198 Canaries, finches
  200-400 mg/L drinking water × 5 days13,70 Psittacines, game birds
  250 mg/L drinking water × 4-6 days49 Gouldian finches/Cochlostoma, Trichomonas
  265 mg/L drinking water102 Pigeons
  300 mg/L drinking water × 10 days43 Bustards/prevention of Trichomonas
  400 mg/L drinking water × 3 days367 Pigeons/PD; bioavailability reduced with feed
  666 mg/L drinking water × 7-12 days43 Pigeons/Trichomonas, Giardia, Hexamita
  800 mg/L drinking water757 Poultry, game birds
  900 mg/L drinking water × 5 days, followed by 700 mg/L × 10 days43 Bustards/treatment of choice for Trichomonas
  ¼-½ tsp/gal drinking water × 3-5 days323 Pigeons/CNS symptoms if overdosed; because of variable water consumption, use lower dose in hot weather and higher dose in cool weather
  ½ tsp/gal drinking water × 5 days671 Lories, mynahs
  1 tsp/gal drinking water × 5 days506,518 Most species
  185-187.5 mg/kg feed102,757 Poultry, game birds
  200-400 mg/kg feed362 Chickens/highly effective against Histomonas
  200-500 mg/kg feed102 Ostriches (≤3 mo of age)/Trichomonas
  250 mg/kg feed43 Bustards/Trichomonas
Dinitolmide (Zoamix, Alpharma) 40-187 mg/kg feed511 Chickens, turkeys/coccidia
Doramectin (Dectomax, Pfizer) 1 mg/kg SC, IM,43 repeat in 2 weeks126 Raptors, bustards/used to treat GI nematodes, lungworms, eyeworms, mites43
Febantel (Vercom, Rintal, Bayer) 5 mg/kg PO511 Ostriches
20 mg/kg PO511 Ostriches
  30 mg/kg PO once41 Pigeons/PD; ascarids; repeated doses required to eliminate Capillaria obsignata
  37.5 mg/kg PO once43 Pigeons
Fenbendazole (Panacur, Intervet) Most species/anthelmintic effective against cestodes, nematodes, trematodes, Giardia, acanthocephalans; toxicity documented in pigeons and doves;361,594,676 may be toxic for other species, including raptors,692 vultures,75,363 lories,594 storks;75,839 can cause feather abnormalities if administered during molting;43 ineffective against finch ventricular worms43
  1.5-3.9 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days793 Chickens/PK, PD; Capillaria
  8 mg/bird PO once43,126 Pigeons/(>8 wk old)
  10-20 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days126,324 Pigeons/nematodes
  10-50 mg/kg PO, repeat in 14 days363,397 Raptors/nematodes, trematodes
  12 mg/kg PO102 Partridges, pheasants/Syngamus, Heterakis, Ascaridia
  15 mg/kg PO388 Ostriches/“wire worms”, cestodes
  15 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days43 Psittacines
  15-25 mg/kg PO × 4-5 days737 Tinamous
  15-45 mg/kg PO102 Ostriches
  20 mg/kg PO once43,834 Waterfowl, pheasants/cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans; reduced Heterakis and Eimeria in pheasants
  20 mg/kg PO q24h × 10-14 days149 Raptors/filarids
  20-25 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days149,261,657 Raptors/Capillaria
  20-50 mg/kg PO q24h43,812 Psittacines, pigeons/ascarids in psittacines, treat once and repeat in 10 days; trematodes and microfilaria, treat for 3 days; Capillaria, treat for 5 days
  20-50 mg/kg q24h × 3 days, repeat in 21 days363 Raptors
  20-100 mg/kg PO once506 Most species
  25 mg/kg PO, repeat in 14 days141,746 Most species, including owls/ascarids
  25 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days,126 repeat in 10-14 days363 Raptors/Capillaria, spirurids
  30 mg/kg PO once43 Bustards
  33 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days147 Psittacines, passerines, raptors/microfilaria, trematodes
  50 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days141,571,693 Most species, including pigeons, Bali mynahs/nematodes, trematodes, Giardia
  50 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days141 Most species/Capillaria
  50 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days692 Cockatoos/filarid adulticide treatment; use with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg once)
  100 mg/kg PO once, repeat in 10-14 days363 Raptors/Capillaria, spirurids
  100 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days111 Cranes/Capillaria
  50 mg/L drinking water × 5 days506 Finches
  125 mg/L drinking water × 5 days506 Most species/nematodes
  53 mg/kg in feed × 5-7 days757 Game birds/nematodes, trematodes
  80 mg/kg feed793 Chickens/PK, PD; Capillaria
Fipronil (Frontline, Merial) 7.5 mg/kg; spray on skin once, repeat in 30 days prn43,126,261 Raptors, pigeons, passerines/ectoparasites; apply via pad to base of neck, tail base, and under each wing; avoid plumage during application; alcohol may create dry, brittle feathers; do not soak bird; do not exceed 7.5 mg/kg
Flubendazole (Flutelmium 7.5%, Janssen-Cilag) 30-60 mg/kg feed × 7 days737 Tinamous
60 mg/kg feed × 7-14 days102,146 Partridges, pheasants
Halofuginone (Collgard Biopharmaceuticals) Not available in the United States
1.3-2.72 mg/kg feed119 Turkeys/coccidia; not approved for birds intended for food
  2.7 mg/kg feed119 Chickens/coccidia, Plasmodium
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (Plaquenil, Sanofi Winthrop) Antimalarial
830 mg/L drinking water × 6 wk387 Pigeons/Plasmodium
Hygromycin B (Hygromix 8, Elanco) Aminoglycoside antibiotic used as anthelmintic feed additive
  9-13 mg/kg feed757 Game birds/ascarids, cecal worms; some efficacy against Capillaria
  18-26 mg/kg feed × 2 mo757 Game birds/cecal worms
Imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol, Intervet/Schering-Plough) Antiprotozoal effective against Babesia
5-7 mg/kg IM once, repeat in 7 days709,850 Raptors/Babesia; some cases require a total of 3 treatments
Ipronidazole (Ipropran, Roche) Giardia, Trichomonas, Histomonas; not available in the United States; 61 g/2.65 oz
  130 mg/L drinking water × 7 days37,506 Most species, including pigeons
  250 mg/L drinking water × 3-7 days518,693 Psittacines, pigeons
Ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) All species/most nematodes, acanthocephalans, leeches, most ectoparasites (including Knemidokoptes, Dermanyssus); can dilute with water or saline for immediate use; dilute with propylene glycol for extended use; parenteral ivermectin may be toxic to finches and budgerigars;147 suspected toxicity reported in a Nanday conure at 0.2 mg/kg605
  0.2 mg/kg PO, SC, IM once, can repeat in 10-14 days43,63,111,126,323,324,355,384,581,692,757 Most species, including psittacines, passerines, pigeons, raptors, Guinea fowl, waterfowl, ratites, cranes/use in combination with fenbendazole at 50 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days for microfilaria in cockatoos692
  0.2 mg/kg SC, topical on skin; can repeat 1-2 weeks for 3-4 applications126,173,203 Canaries/quill mites, Knemidokoptes; dilute to 0.02% solution with propylene glycol; can apply directly to lesions on cere, legs
  0.4 mg/kg SC once409 Passerines (towhees)/Capillaria
  0.4 mg/kg SC once506 Raptors
  0.5-1 mg/kg PO, IM once323 Pigeons
  1 mg/kg SC, repeat in 7 days705 Falcons/Serratospiculum
  2 mg/kg IM once791 Falcons/Capillaria; no adverse effects observed at this dose
  0.8-1 mg/L drinking water198 Canaries
  1 drop (0.05 mL) to skin q7d × 3 treatments43 Pigeons, passerines/Knemidokoptes, Dermanyssus
Lasalocid (Avatec, Alpharma) 67-125 mg/kg feed continuously102,757,787 Game birds, chickens/coccidia
Levamisole (Tramisol, Schering-Plough) Many species/nematodes; immunostimulant; low therapeutic index (toxic reactions, deaths reported); do not use in debilitated birds;43,506 IM administration may cause severe toxicity; limb paralysis, vomiting, dyspnea reported in a parakeet; do not use in white-faced ibis672 or in lories; withhold food before treatment to prevent regurgitation506
  2-5 mg/kg SC, IM, repeat in 10-14 days × 3 treatments43 Psittacines/immunostimulant
  7.5 mg/kg PO, SC102 Ostriches
  7.5 mg/kg IM once; can repeat in 7 days43 Pigeons
  10-20 mg/kg PO, SC q24h × 2 days149,363 Raptors
  10-20 mg/kg SC once43,506 Most species
  15-20 mg/bird PO once, repeat in 10 days126 Pigeons
  20 mg/kg PO once43,506 Psittacines, pigeons, raptors
  20-25 mg/kg SC757 Game birds
  20-50 mg/kg PO, SC once43 Waterfowl
  30 mg/kg PO q10d810 Ratites
  40 mg/kg PO once43,216,324,506 Psittacines, pigeons, chickens, raptors/Capillaria; significantly higher bioavailability, volume of distribution and total body clearance in laying hens216
  100-200 mg/L drinking water × 3 days126,147 Psittacines, passerines, raptors
  264-396 mg/L drinking water × 1-3 days324,506 Most species, including pigeons
  265-525 mg/L drinking water × 1 day, repeat in 7-14 days757,849 Game birds, poultry
  375 mg/L drinking water as sole water source for 24 hr, repeat in 7 days43 Pigeons
Maduramicin ammonium (Cygro, Alpharma) 5-6 mg/kg feed511,787 Chickens, turkeys/coccidia; not available in the United States
Malathion (Prozap Malathion 57EC, Loveland) Dilute to 0.93%; paint or spray perches and premises43 Raptors/organophosphate; premise treatment; Dermanyssus
Mebendazole (Telmin Suspension, Telmintic Powder, Schering-Plough) 5-6 mg/kg PO q24h × 3-5 days, repeat in 21 days387 Pigeons
5-7 mg/kg PO810 Ostriches
5-15 mg/kg PO q24h × 2 days43,534 Waterfowl/nematodes
  10 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days506 Canaries/avoid use during breeding season
  20 mg/kg PO q24h × 10-14 days43,149 Raptors/filarids
  25 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days159,672 Psittacines, ramphastids (toucans)/nematodes; may not be effective for proventricular and ventricular parasites
  25 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days, repeat q30d363 Raptors/intestinal nematodiasis
  50 mg/kg PO, repeat in 10-14 days363 Raptors/intestinal nematodiasis
  10-21 mg/L drinking water × 3-5 days387 Pigeons
  1.2 mg/kg feed × 14 days63 Waterfowl/nematodes
Mefloquine HCl (Lariam, Hoffman-LaRoche) Antimalarial; active against erythrocytic and tissue schizonts of some Plasmodium665,792
  30 mg/kg PO q12h × 1 day, then q24h × 1-2 days399,792,850 Raptors
  30 mg/kg PO q12h × 1 day, then q24h × 2 days, then q7d × 6 mo399 Raptors/long term administration
  30 mg/kg PO once weekly660 Raptors/Plasmodium routine prevention during insect season
  50 mg/kg q24h551 Raptors/Haemoproteus; used in conjunction with chloroquine at doses up to 60 mg/kg
  50 mg/kg PO q24h × 7 days126 Raptors/Plasmodium
Melarsomine dihydrochloride (Immiticide, Merial) Organic arsenical
0.25 mg/kg IM q24h × 4 days126 Raptors/Leucocytozoon
Melarsomine dihydrochloride (M)/ivermectin (I) (Merial) (M) 0.25 mg/kg IM q 24h × 2 days followed 10 days later with (I) 1 mg/kg IM43,789 Falcons/Serratospiculum; reduced clinical signs and eliminated shedding of embryonated eggs789
Metronidazole Most species/antiprotozoal, including alimentary tract protozoa (especially flagellates such as Giardia, Histomonas, Spironucleus, Trichomonas)
  10-20 mg/kg IM q12-24h × 2 days359,506 Pigeons, psittacines
  10-30 mg/kg PO, IM q12h × 10 days43,812 Psittacines
  20-25 mg/kg PO q12h810 Ratites
  25 mg/kg PO q12h × 2-10 days402 Psittacine neonates
  25 mg/kg PO q12h × 10 days119 Turkeys/Trichomonas
  25-50 mg/kg PO q12-24h × 5-10 days359 Companion birds/treatment, control, or prevention of Giardia, Trichomonas, and Hexamita
  25-50 mg/kg PO q12-24h324 Pigeons/use lower dose with twice daily dosing
  30 mg/kg PO via gavage once230 Finches/Cochlosoma
  30 mg/kg PO q12h167 Poultry/PK, PD
  30 mg/kg PO q12h × 5-10 days49,548,654 Raptors, gouldian finches, psittacines/Trichomonas
  30-50 mg/kg PO q24h × 3-5 days660 Raptors/Trichomonas
  40 mg/kg PO q24h645 Rheas
  40 mg/kg PO q24h × 7 days644 Budgerigars/Trichomonas
  40-50 mg/kg PO q24h × 5-7 days126 Pigeons
  50 mg/kg PO119 Waterfowl/flagellates
  50 mg/kg PO q24h × 5-7 days43,149,261,363 Raptors/Trichomonas, Giardia
  50 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days126,693 Pigeons, passerines
  100 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days707 Falcons/Trichomonas
  100-150 mg PO total dose divided over 5 days43 Pigeons
  110 mg/kg PO q12h321 Poultry/Histomonas
  40 mg/L drinking water230 Finches/Cochlosoma
  100 mg/L drinking water198 Canaries
  200 mg/L drinking water × 7 days126 Passerines
  370 mg/L drinking water773 Passerines/protozoal sinusitis
  400 mg/L drinking water × 5-15 days757,773 Game birds, passerines/protozoal sinusitis
  1057 mg/L drinking water324 Pigeons
  1250 mg/L drinking water × 7-10 days534 Ratites
  100 mg/kg soft feed198 Canaries
  200-400 mg/kg feed362 Chickens/highly effective against Histomonas but reduced weight gains at higher dosage
Milbemycin oxime (Interceptor, Novartis) 2 mg/kg PO, repeat in 28 days340 Galliformes/nematodes
Monensin (Coban 45, Elanco) Ionophore antibiotic anticoccidial feed additive
  53-94 mg/kg feed × 10 wk123,757 Turkeys
  73 mg/kg feed × 10 wk119 Quail
  94 mg/kg feed114,757 Quail, cranes/coccidia (including disseminated visceral coccidiosis)
  94-108 mg/kg feed × 8 wk757 Chickens
  99 mg/kg feed115 Sandhill cranes/prevented experimentally induced disseminated visceral coccidiosis
  99.2 mg/kg feed647 Turkeys/23/33 Eimeria isolates resistant
Moxidectin (ProHeart, Fort Dodge) Treatment of Serratospiculum, Capillaria, acanthocephalans, Paraspiralatus sakeri, and Physaloptera alata in falcons43
  0.2 mg/kg PO126,705 Raptors/nematodes
  0.2 mg/kg IM once159 Ramphastids (toucans)/repeat if necessary
  0.5 mg/kg PO43 Raptors
  0.5-1 mg/kg PO126 Raptors/Capillaria
  1 mg/bird topically once, or can repeat q10d × 2 treatments Budgerigars/Knemidokoptes; no adverse effects seen at this dose in this speciesa
Narasin (Monteban 45, Elanco) 20-80 mg/kg feed787 Chickens/prophylatic coccidiostat; toxic to turkeys
Nicarbazin (Nicarb 25%, Merck AgVet) 20-125 mg/kg feed787 Chickens/prophylactic coccidiostat
Niclosamide (Yomesan, Bayer) Cestodes, trematodes; rarely used since praziquantel is more efficacious; may be toxic for geese and some Anseriformes; not available in the United States
  50-100 mg/kg PO, repeat in 10-14 days413 Ostriches
  220 mg/kg PO, repeat in 10-14 days329 Most species
  250 mg/kg PO q14d prn110 Cranes
  500 mg/kg PO q7d × 4 wk329 Finches
Oxfendazole (Benzelmin, Syntex) 5 mg/kg PO once146 Ostriches/nematodes
10-40 mg/kg PO once506,767 Most species, including finches/nematodes
  15-25 mg/kg PO once159 Ramphastids (toucans)/repeat in 15 days prn
  20 mg/kg PO once341 Raptors
Paromomycin (Humatin, Caraco-Pharma) Highest efficacy of all drugs tested thus far against Cryptosporidium; oocyst output decreased by 67-82% in chickens;756 may result in secondary bacterial or mycotic infections; use with caution if ulcerative bowel lesions are suspected because renal toxicity may occur;359 ineffective against Histomonas362
  100 mg/kg PO q12h × 7 days136,261 Most species, including macaw chicks, falcons/mix a 250 mg capsule with 10 ml water to facilitate dosing; poorly absorbed
  1000 mg/kg soft food or hulled millet49 Gouldian finches/Cryptosporidium; may predispose to fungal infections
Permethrin (Adams, Pfizer) Dust plumage lightly43 Pigeons/lice, fleas
Permethrin/piperonyl butoxide/methoprene (Avian Insect Liquidator, Vetafarm) Apply to plumage; spray cages, aviaries, bird rooms, surroundings43 Most species/lice, mites, flies, mosquitoes, moths; not available in the United States
Phenylarsonic acid (Merck European Laboratories) 22-45 mg/kg119 Chickens, turkeys/Histomonas prevention; not recommended or approved for game birds; not available in the United States
Piperazine (Wazine, Fleming Laboratories) Most species/ascarids, oxyurids; less efficacious than fenbendazole; seldom used in companion birds
  35 mg/kg PO q24h × 2 days324 Pigeons/ascarids
  45-200 mg/kg PO once671 Waterfowl/Tetrameres, Capillaria
  50-100 mg/kg PO once534,757 Emus, ostriches, chickens
  100 mg/kg PO, repeat in 14 days397,506 Raptors
  100-400 mg/bird PO757 Turkeys
  100-500 mg/kg PO once, repeat in 10-14 days757 Game birds
  250 mg/kg PO once506 Psittacines, pigeons
  79 mg/L drinking water × 2 days324 Pigeons/ascarids
  1000 mg/L drinking water × 3 days63,506 Raptors, pigeons
  1000 mg/L drinking water; repeat in 10-14 days43 Gallinaceous birds/not effective in psittacines, finches
  1000-2000 mg/L drinking water × 1-2 days102,126,757 Game birds, pigeons
  1600-2600 mg/L drinking water119 Waterfowl/Tetrameres, Capillaria
  3700 mg/L drinking water × 12 hr, repeat in 14-21 days126 Passerines
Piperonyl butoxide/pyrethrin (Ridmite Powder, Johnson) Dust plumage, repeat in 10 days43 Psittacines
Dust plumage, repeat in 21 days43 Raptors
Ponazuril (Marquis 5% paste; Bayer) Triazine coccidiocidal drug; metabolite of toltrazuril
  20 mg/kg q24h × 7 days829 Falcons/respiratory Cryptosporidium baileyi
Praziquantel (Droncit, Bayer) Most species/cestodes, trematodes; toxic in finches and associated with depression, death in some species43,672
  1 mg/kg PO43 Bustards/well tolerated
  5-10 mg/kg PO, repeat after 2-4 wk43,147,149 Psittacines, passerines, raptors
  5-10 mg/kg PO, SC q24h × 14 days43,63,119,363 Raptors, waterfowl/trematodes
  6 mg/kg PO, IM, repeat in 10-14 days111 Cranes
  7.5 mg/kg PO70,534 Ostriches
  7.5 mg/kg SC, IM repeat in 2-4 wk126,147 Most species, except finches
  8.5 mg/kg IM16 Chickens
  9 mg/kg IM, repeat in 10 days43,64 Psittacines/cestodes
  10 mg/kg PO, IM, SC once; repeat in 7 days261 Raptors/cestodes, trematodes
  10 mg/kg SC, IM q24h × 3 days, then PO × 11 days363,812 Psittacines, raptors/trematodes
  10 mg/kg PO16 Chickens
  10 mg/kg IM q24h × 3 days, then PO q24h × 11 days286 Toucans/trematodes
  10 mg/kg PO, SC, IM q24h × 14 days43,159 Waterfowl, toucans/trematodes; in toucans, follow with 6 mg/kg PO q24h × 14 days672
  10-20 mg/kg PO, repeat in 10-14 days43,70,126,324 Most species including pigeons, waterfowl
  10-20 mg/kg SC, IM, repeat in 10 days63 Waterfowl/cestodes
  11 mg/kg SC once16 Chickens
  25 mg/kg PO, IM, repeat in 10-14 days570 Bali mynahs/cestodes
  30-50 mg/kg PO, SC, IM, repeat in 14 days363,397 Raptors/cestodes
  12 mg crushed and baked into 9” × 9” × 2” cake506 Finches/withhold regular feed
Primaquine Pigeons, raptors, game birds, penguins/hematozoa (i.e., Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon); use in conjunction with chloroquine; dosage based on amount of active base rather than total tablet weight
  0.03 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days134,671,757 Game birds, penguins
  0.3 mg/kg PO (at 24 hr following the initial chloroquine dose) q24h × 7 days113 Raptors/use with chloroquine (10 mg/kg at 0 hr, then 5 mg/kg at 6, 24, and 48 hr)
  0.3 mg/kg PO q24h × 10 days266 Penguins/Plasmodium; use with chloroquine (10 mg/kg at 0 hr, then 5 mg/kg at 6, 18, and 24 hr)
  0.75 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days790 Falcons/Haemoproteus tinnunculi
  0.75-1 mg/kg PO once661,747 Most species, including raptors/Plasmodium; use with chloroquine (25 mg/kg at 0 hr, then 15 mg/kg at 12, 24, and 48 hr); palliative therapy
  1 mg/kg PO q7d661 Most species/use with chloroquine (10 mg/kg q7d) as a preventative regimen for birds recovering from Plasmodium infection
  1 mg/kg PO q24h × 2 days, repeat q7d × 3-5 treatments to prevent relapse661 Raptors/Plasmodium; use with chloroquine (20 mg/kg IV initially, followed by 10 mg/kg PO at 6, 18, and 24 hr)
  1 mg/kg PO q24h × 45 days843 Psittacines (keas)/Sarcocystis; use in combination with amprolium, enrofloxacin and pyrimethamine
  1.25 mg/kg PO q24h266 Penguins/prophylactic therapy against Plasmodium
Pyrantel pamoate Intestinal nematodes
  4.5 mg/kg PO, repeat in 10-14 days43,853 Psittacines, including cockatoo chicks853
  5-7 mg/kg PO810 Ostriches
  7 mg/kg PO, repeat in 14 days141 Most species
  7-20 mg/kg PO, repeat in 14 days363 Raptors
  20 mg/kg PO once43,149 Raptors
  20-25 mg/kg PO324 Pigeons
  70 mg/kg PO once159 Ramphastids (toucans)/repeat if necessary
  148 mg/L drinking water692 Psittacines, pigeons/medication floats
Pyrethrins (0.15%) (Adams, Pfizer) Dust plumage lightly to moderately prn63,692 Most species, including psittacines, pigeons/ectoparasites
Pyrimethamine (Fansidar, Roche) Toxoplasma, Atoxoplasma, Sarcocystis; may be effective for Leucocytozoon; supplement with folic or folinic acid
  0.25-0.5 mg/kg PO q12h × 30 days43,149 Raptors, waterfowl/Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma
  0.5 mg/kg PO q12h × 14-28 days126,141 Most species/use for 28 days for Leucocytozoon in raptors126
  0.5 mg/kg PO q12h × 30 days63 Waterfowl/Sarcocystis
  0.5 mg/kg PO q12h × 45 days843 Psittacines (keas)/Sarcocystis; use in combination with amprolium and primaquine
  0.5-1 mg/kg PO q12h × 2-4 days, then 0.25 mg/kg PO q12h × 30 days359 Companion birds/Sarcocystis; use in combination with trimethoprim-sulfa 5 mg/kg IM q12h or 30-100 mg/kg PO q12h × 7 days
  0.5-1 mg/kg PO q12h × 30 days592 Eclectus, Amazon parrots/use with trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (30 mg/kg)
  1 mg/kg feed757 Game birds
  100 mg/kg feed141 Most species
Quinacrine HCl (Atabrine, Sanofi) Most species/Atoxoplasma, Plasmodium; chloroquine and primaquine are preferred; overdosage may cause hepatoxicity506
  5-10 mg/kg PO q24h × 7-10 days392,506 Most species/use higher doses for Lankesterella, Plasmodium
  7.5 mg/kg PO q24h × 10 days506 Most species/Atoxoplasma
  26-79 mg/L drinking water × 10-21 days324 Pigeons
Rafoxanide (Flukex, Univet; Ranide, MSD) 10 mg/kg PO876 Raptors/trematodes, cestodes; not available in the United States
Resorantel (Terenol-S, Intervet) 130 mg/kg PO413,511 Ostriches/cestodes; administer with or without fenbendazole
Robenidine HCl (Bio-Cox, Alpharma) 4-6 mg/kg PO q24h × 6 days511 Pigeons/prophylaxis for coccidiosis
6-10 mg/kg PO q24h × 6-10 days511 All species
  4 mg/L drinking water × 7 days506 Songbirds
  10-20 mg/L drinking water × 7 days506,511 Cockatiels, pigeons
  100 mg/L drinking water × 3-5 days506,511 Pigeons
  33 mg/kg feed511,787 Chickens
Ronidazole (Ronivet-S, Vetafarm) 2.5 mg/kg PO × 6 days324 Pigeons
6-10 mg/kg PO q24h × 6-10 days506 Most species
  10-20 mg/kg PO q24h × 7 days126 Pigeons
  12.5 mg/kg PO × 6 days43 Pigeons
  50-400 mg/L drinking water × 5 days126 Passerines
  60 mg/L drinking water230 Finches/Cochlosoma
  100 mg/L drinking water × 5-7 days702 Pigeons/flock preventative dose; treatment of choice for Trichomonas308
  100-200 mg/L drinking water × 7 days506 Cockatiels, pigeons/higher dosage required for resistant strains in pigeons
  100-600 mg/L drinking water × 3-5 days324 Pigeons
  400 mg/L drinking water × 5-7 days43,198,511 Canaries, pigeons/flock treatment; Trichomonas; preventive dose43
  600 mg/L drinking water × 5-7 days43 Pigeons/Trichomonas; flock treatment
  1000 mg/L drinking water q24h126 Pigeons/equivalent to 12.5 mg/kg/day
  400 mg/kg soft feed198,511 Canaries
Rotenone (Ear Miticide, Vedco) Topical876 Most species/Knemidokoptes
Selamectin (Revolution, Pfizer) No adverse effects, including neurological signs, were seen in healthy zebra finches with doses up to 92 mg/kg69
  23 mg/kg topically, repeat in 3-4 weeks68 Budgerigars/Knemidokoptes improvement in 13/14 birds at 4 wk, with no neurologic signs identified but monitor for weight loss
Sulfachlorpyrazine (ESB3, Novartis) Coccidiostat; affects the intestinal stages of Atoxoplasma;198 not available in the United States, but can be obtained through the Bali mynah Species Survival Plan572
  1 g of 30% powder/L drinking water × 5 days, off 3 days, on 5 days, then repeat cycle 4x; administer treatment 3x annually572 Bali mynahs/Atoxoplasma; significantly reduced or totally cleared oocyst shedding for extended time; it is uncertain if the drug is safe to use when parents are feeding chicks; supplement with vitamin B6
Sulfachlorpyridazine (Vetisulid, Boehringer-Ingelheim) Coccidiostat; used as replacement for sulfachlorpyrazine in the United States
150-300 mg/L drinking water;198 5 days/wk × 2-3 weeks173 Passerines, including canaries/may need to treat for months for systemic coccidiosis
  300 mg/L drinking water × 5 days, off 3 days, on 5 days, then repeat cycle 4x; administer treatment 3x annually572 Passerines, including Bali mynahs/Atoxoplasma
  300 mg/L drinking water × 7-10 days324 Pigeons
  300-1000 mg/L drinking water × 3 days, off 2 days, then repeat course126 Pigeons
  400 mg/L drinking water × 30 days692 Cockatiels, budgerigars/mixture is stable for up to 5 days if refrigerated; change daily; mix well
  400-500 mg/L drinking water × 5 days, off 2 days, on 5 days506 Most species
Sulfadimethoxine (12.5%) (Albon, Pfizer) 20 mg/kg PO q12h96 Most species/treatment and prophylaxis of coccidia
25 mg/kg PO q12h × 5 days324 Most species
  25-50 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days397 Raptors
  25-50 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days, off 2 days, then q24h × 3 days363 Raptors
  25-55 mg/kg PO q 24h × 3-7 days658 Raptors/Eimeria, Sarcocystis
  50 mg/kg PO once, then 25 mg/kg PO q24h × 7-10 days363 Raptors
  50 mg/kg PO q24h × 5 days, off 3 days, on 5 days812 Psittacines
  250 mg/kg IM q24h × 3 days, off 2 days, on 3 days92 Pigeons/PK, PD; close to toxic level
  250 mg/L drinking water × 5 days757 Turkeys
  330-400 mg/L drinking water × 1 day then 200 mg/L × 4 days324 Pigeons/supplement with vitamin B for 5 days
  500 mg/L drinking water × 6 days757 Chickens
Sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprim (Rofenaid, Hoffmann-La Roche) 10 mg/kg feed757 Game birds/coccidia, Leucocytozoon, Sarcocystis
320-525 mg/L drinking water321 Poultry
Sulfadimidine sodium (33.3%) (Neotrizine, Lilly) 40-50 mg/kg PO q24h × 7 days or 3 days on, 2 days off126 Pigeons
50-150 mg/kg PO, IM q24h × 5-7 days242 Raptors/coccidia; lack of efficacy reported in merlins262
  3330-6660 mg/L drinking water × 3-5 days on, 2 days off repeated twice43 Pigeons/coccidia; may be effective against Toxoplasma
Sulfamethazine (Sulmet, Boehringer-Ingelheim) See sulfonamides; coccidiostat; consider vitamin B supplementation
50-65 mg/pigeon PO × 3 days, off 2-3 days, repeat × 2-3 days434 Pigeons
  50-65 mg/pigeon PO × 5 days324,434 Pigeons/supplement vitamin B for 5 days324
  75 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days, off 2 days, on 3 days506 Parakeets
  125-185 mg/kg PO q24h × 2 days, then 64-94 mg/kg × 4 days388 Chickens
  125 mg/L drinking water × 3 days, off 2 days, on 3 days506 Most species
  400 mg/L drinking water once, then 200-270 mg/L × 4 days324 Pigeons
Sulfaquinoxaline (Sulquin 6-50, Solvay) Sulfonamide used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis
100 mg/kg PO q24h × 3 days, off 2 days, on 3 days506 Lories, pigeons
  250 mg/L drinking water × 6 days, off 2 days, on 6 days692 Turkeys
  400 mg/L (1.4 mL/L) drinking water × 6 days, off 2 days, on 6 days692 Chickens
  500 mg/L (1.8 mL/L) drinking water × 6 days, off 2 days, on 6 days693 Pigeons
  225 mg/kg feed continuously757 Turkeys
  450 mg/kg feed continuously757 Chickens
Sulfonamides Competitvely inhibit para-aminobenzoic acid, required by schizonts for folic acid synthesis;434 contraindicated with dehydration, liver disease, or bone marrow suppression; gastrointestinal upset, regurgitation are common, especially in macaws; use for longer than 2 wk may require vitamin B (folic acid) supplementation
Thiabendazole Most species/nematodes, acanthocephalans; generally less efficacious than fenbendazole; may be toxic to cranes, ratites, diving ducks43
  40-100 mg/kg PO q24h × 7 days506 Most species
  50 mg/kg PO, repeat in 14 days534 Ostriches
  100 mg/kg PO once, repeat in 10-14 days747 Raptors
  100 mg/kg PO q24h × 7-10 days387 Most species/gapeworms, ascarids
  100-200 mg/kg PO q12h × 10 days149 Raptors/nematodes; may interfere with egg laying
  100-500 mg/kg PO once506 Most species
  250-500 mg/kg PO, repeat in 10-14 days43,812 Most species, including psittacines/ascarids
  425 mg/kg feed × 14 days113,757 Pheasants, cranes
Tinidazole (Fasigyn, Pfizer) 50 mg/kg PO once506 Most species/Giardia, Trichomonas, Entamoeba
  200-400 mg/kg feed362 Chickens/Histomonas; depressed weight gain on higher dosage
Toltrazuril (Baycox, Bayer) Coccidiocidal;434 efficacious for refractory coccidiosis; has been successful in reducing mortality from Atoxoplasma in canaries and other passerines and may affect systemic stages of the disease;572 not very effective against Atoxoplasma when given in water; bitter taste, mixing with soft drink (i.e., cola) increases palatability;43 2.5% solution is very alkaline and should not be gavaged directly into the crop434
  7 mg/kg PO q24h × 2-3 days358,397 Budgerigars, raptors
  10 mg/kg PO q24h × 2 days658 Raptors/preferred treatment for Caryospora
  10 mg/kg PO q48h × 3 treatments43 Raptors/treatment of choice for coccidiosis in falcons
  12.5 mg/kg PO q24h × 14 days570 Bali mynahs/Atoxoplasma; dosage is based on a limited number of clinical cases
  15-25 mg/kg PO q24h × 2 days43 Raptors
  20-35 mg/kg PO once830 Pigeons/higher dose prevents shedding up to 4 wk; lower dose is minimum dose required to suppress oocyst shedding
  25 mg/kg PO q7d × 3 treatments126,261 Raptors/Caryospora, coccidiosis
  2 mg/L drinking water × 2 consecutive days/wk147 Psittacines
  5 mg/L drinking water × 2 days, repeat in 14-21 days471 Lories/10 mg/L administered during second course of treatment
  12.5 mg/L drinking water × 2 days43 Waterfowl
  20 mg/kg in drinking water × 2 days434 Pigeons
  25 mg/L drinking water × 2 days213 Chickens/effective in preventing disease and reducing total oocysts, lesions, and mortality in infected birds with mixed Eimeria infections
  25 mg/L drinking water × 2 days, repeat in 5 days307 Geese
  25 mg/L drinking water × 2 days, repeat in 14-21 days471 Cockatiels, passerines (including goldfinches, manikins, siskins)/coccidia
  75 mg/L drinking water × 2 days/wk × 4 wk173 Passerines
  75 mg/L drinking water × 5 days325 Pigeons
  125 mg/L drinking water × 5 days43 Pigeons
Trimethoprim/sulfachlorpyridazine (1:5 ratio; Cosumix Plus, Novartis) See sulfonamides
400 mg/kg feed388,672 Geese
Trimethoprim/sulfadiazine (Di-Trim, Boehringer-Ingelheim; Duphatrim 24% injection, Solvay) See sulfonamides
5 mg/kg IM q12h359 Companion birds/Sarcocystis; use in conjunction with pyrimethamine (0.5-1 mg/kg PO q12h × 2 days, then 0.25 mg/kg PO q12h × 30 days)
  30 mg/kg PO q8-12h65,363 Most species, including psittacines, raptors/Sarcocystis (treat for at least 6 wk); coccidia
  30-100 mg/kg PO q12h × 7 days359 Companion birds/Sarcocystis; use in conjunction with pyrimethamine (0.5-1 mg/kg PO q12h × 2 days, then 0.25 mg/kg PO q12h × 30 days)
  60 mg/kg PO, SC q12h × 3 days, off 2 days, on 3 days43 Raptors, waterfowl/coccidia
  80 mg/mL drinking water (trimethoprim)/40 mg/mL water (sulfadiazine)852 Canaries/Toxoplasma gondii
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Roche; Septra, Burroughs Welcome) 25 mg/kg PO q24h672 Toucans, mynahs/coccidia
30 mg/kg PO q12-24h126 Passerines/antiprotozoal
320-525 mg/L drinking water321 Poultry/coccidia
480 mg/L drinking water q24h126 Pigeons/antiprotozoal

a Toparlak M. Personal communication. 1999.

Stay updated, free articles. Join our Telegram channel

Aug 21, 2016 | Posted by in EXOTIC, WILD, ZOO | Comments Off on Birds

Full access? Get Clinical Tree

Get Clinical Tree app for offline access