2 What are some important principles to understand about the identification of avian leukocytes by blood smear evaluation?

3 Describe the various avian leukocytes.

Avian leukocytes include the heterophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, and eosinophil. Descriptions are based on Romanowsky-stained (e.g., Wright-Giemsa, Diff-Quik) blood smears.

5 What are common methods of enumerating total numbers of leukocytes?

These methods include indirect (blood smear estimation, eosinophil Unopette 5877) and direct (Natt and Herrick’s) methods. The Unopette system and Natt and Herrick’s are labor intensive because they involve manual enumeration of cells using a hemocytometer.

For faster, automated, direct quantification, automated cell counters are available based on flow cytometric technology. These automated counters are capable of quantifying the total number of leukocytes in avian blood. However, known drawbacks of this technology include the potential for including nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes in the leukocyte count and, generally, inconsistent automated differential cell counts. Manual examination of a blood smear is therefore essential when performing differential cell counts in conjunction with an automated cell counter. Flow cytometric technology is expensive and available primarily to commercial laboratories with the time, finances, and dedicated personnel to utilize and service the technology appropriately. As with any automated technology daily quality control/quality assurance measures must be in place to produce reproducible, accurate results. (For detailed discussion on leukocyte count techniques, see the Bibliography following Chapter 53.)

6 What causes heterophilia?

In general, heterophilia may be caused by the following three conditions, acting singly or in combination (Box 49-1):

Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a rarely seen cause of neutrophilia in domestic animals, and to my knowledge, it is undescribed in pet birds.

Aug 26, 2016 | Posted by in INTERNAL MEDICINE | Comments Off on AVIAN HEMATOLOGY
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