Atrioventricular Block, Second Degree
The supraventricular impulse is intermittently blocked at the level of the atrioventricular (AV) node, resulting in a “missed” ventricular beat. At rest, this arrhythmia occurs in about 45% of healthy horses.
• Advanced (high-grade or high-degree) second-degree AV block (pathologic): Three or more consecutive P waves are blocked, resulting in a large difference between atrial and ventricular rate. AV conduction is still present.
• In case of advanced second-degree AV block: Slow or normal heart rate. Weakness or exercise intolerance may be present. Multiple dropped beats in a row that may not disappear with exercise or vagolytic agents may occur.